gender patterns in crime

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Heidensohn
gender differences are most significant feature of recorded crime
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most crime committed by?
males. 4/5 convicted offenders are men and female convicted more of property offences and males violent
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the chivalry theisis
CJS more lenient to women because they are socialised into acting in a chivalrous way
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Pollak
men have protective attitude towards women and are more lenient to their crimes so they are in the statistics less. Positively labelled by agents of social control
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Homolka
helped her husband murder two women but was convicted of man slaughter after saying her husband abused her into it and got reduced sentence.
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Ministry of Justice
49% females on record got caution but only 30% male
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Farrington and Morris
magistrates court study found women not sentenced more leniently
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Heidonsohn
CJS treats women harsher when they deviate from gender norms. Double standard where courts punish girls and not boys for promiscuous behaviour. Punishments are harsher if they don't conform to monogamous mother role
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Carlen
not how serious the crime is but how they come across as mothers
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Walklate
in **** cases victim on trial and has to prove respectability to get evidence heard
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Functionalist sex role theory- parsons
men socialised into instrumental role men reject mothers femininity so engage in compensatory compulsory masculinity.
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cohen
absence of male role model means boys turn to all male gangs to get masculine identity
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Heidonsohn
patriarchal society imposes greater restrictions reducing opportunity to offend. Control at home= domestic role restricts time and DV. Bedroom culture. Control in public=fear of sexual violence and being seen as not respectable.
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Heidonsohn cont.
control at work= subordinate position reduces opportunities for white collar
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Carlen
act rationally and are controlled by offers of deals rewards for conforming. Class deal= work and get material rewards. Gender deal= conform to domestic role and gain material and emotional rewards. crime committed when don't believe will get rewards
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Adler- liberation thesis
liberated from patriarchy so crime becomes equal to men. Leads to rise of female crime. More equal opportunites in ed. and work so women adapt male roles so commit more male crime like white collar
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evidence of liberation thesis
1950's-1990's female share of offences rose from 1/7 to 1/6
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criticism of liberation thesis
crime rate began rising before liberation in 1960's. Most female criminals are working class- those least likely to be influenced by liberation
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Messerschmidt
masculinity is an accomplishment men have to constantly work a. Dominant= hegemonic. Most men wish to accomplish this with paid work and control of women. Subordinate=gay and have no desire for hegemonic
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Messerschmidt cont.
white wc adopt oppositional inside and outside school=aggressive. white mc educational success at expense and adopt oppositional masculinty outside of school with pranks etc. black lower wc have few expectations for good job so use violence to expres
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Winlow
industrialisation lost manual jobs that wc men expressed masculinity through. Bouncers- use body capital to express it
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males. 4/5 convicted offenders are men and female convicted more of property offences and males violent

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most crime committed by?

Card 3

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CJS more lenient to women because they are socialised into acting in a chivalrous way

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Card 4

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men have protective attitude towards women and are more lenient to their crimes so they are in the statistics less. Positively labelled by agents of social control

Back

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Card 5

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helped her husband murder two women but was convicted of man slaughter after saying her husband abused her into it and got reduced sentence.

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