Gender differences in educational achievement- Statistics and external factors

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State several statistics that prove there is a gender gap in achievement.
At GCSE, the gender gap stands at around 10 percentage points. At Key Stages 1 to 3, girls do consistently better than boys. Especially in English, where the gender gap widens with age.
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How does McRobbie's (1994) study of girls' magazines prove that feminism has had an effect on women's educational success?
In the 1970s, they emphasised the importance of getting married and not being 'left on the shelf'. Nowadays= assertive and independent women. Changes encouraged by feminism may affect girls' self-image and ambitions within regard to family+careers.
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What are the major changes in the family since the 1970s that have contributed to a gender gap in educational achievement?
An increase in divorce rate, an increase in cohabitation, smaller families and an increased number of lone-parent families.
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What are the major changes in women's employment that has led to a gender gap in achievement?
The 1970 Equal Pay Act, the proportion of women in employment has risen from 53% in 1971 to 67% in 2013, some women are now breaking through the 'glass ceiling' - invisible barrier that keep them out of high-level professional jobs.
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What did O'Connor (2006) find in her study on the changing ambitions of girls?
She studied 15-17 year olds and found that marriage and children were not a major part of their life plans.
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What do Beck and Beck-Gernsheim (2001) link girls' changing ambitions to?
They link this to the trend towards individualization in modern society, where independence is valued more than the past.
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What has happened to W/C girls educational achievement?
They continue to have gender-stereotyped aspirations for marriage and children and expect to go into traditional low paid women's work.
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Biggart (2002) did a study into W/C girls educational achievement, discuss this.
Found that W/C girls are more likely to face a precarious position in the labour market and to see motherhood as their only viable option for their futures. Hence, they see less point in achieving in education.
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Card 2

Front

How does McRobbie's (1994) study of girls' magazines prove that feminism has had an effect on women's educational success?

Back

In the 1970s, they emphasised the importance of getting married and not being 'left on the shelf'. Nowadays= assertive and independent women. Changes encouraged by feminism may affect girls' self-image and ambitions within regard to family+careers.

Card 3

Front

What are the major changes in the family since the 1970s that have contributed to a gender gap in educational achievement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the major changes in women's employment that has led to a gender gap in achievement?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What did O'Connor (2006) find in her study on the changing ambitions of girls?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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