gender ; cognitive explanations ; kohlberg's theory

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- stages in development
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how many stages did he believe there were?
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gender identity / gender stability / gender constancy
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his cognitive-developmental theory of gender is based on what idea about child's inderstanding of gender?
becomes more sophisitcated with age
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understanding of gender runs parallel to what development?
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as child biologically?
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ages suggested by kohlberg are approx and reflect what fact?
transition is gradual > sudden
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- stage one: gender identity
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at around what age?
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children are able to correctly do what?
identifu themselves boy / girl
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at 3 most children are able to do what?
identify others as male / female
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understanding of gender though tends not to stretch past?
simple labelling
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often children of this age group aren't aware of what about sex?
its permanent
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like a two an a half year old boy may say?
i want to be amummy when i grow up
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- stage two: gender stability
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at what age is this acquired?
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with this comes what realisation?
they'll always stay the same gender consistent over time
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that said this logic cannot apply to whaT?
other ppl in other situations
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often confused by external appearance changes like?
man with long hair / female builder
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- stage three: gender constancy
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at around what age?
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here children recognise what about gender?
constant across time + situations applied to all genders
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as consequence no longer fooled by?
outward appearance
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though many find man in a dress confusing they can still acknowledge?
its a man underneath
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- imitation of role models
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at gender constancy children begin to do what?
seek out gender-appropriate role models
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to do what?
identify with / imitate
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this connects closel with ideas in what approach?
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once child fully dev and internalised concept of gender @ constancy theyll?
search for evidence confirming the concept
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:) evudence supporting stage sequences
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slaby and frey presented children with what?
split-screen images of males and females performing the same tasks
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what did younger children do?
spend roughly same time watching both sexes
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in constancy children did what?
spent longer time looking @ same sex model
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this would suggest which of kohlberg's assumptions to be correct?
children with constancy will acrively seek gender-appropriate models
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:( constancy not supported
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what observation undermines his observation?
many children begin demonstrating gender-appropriate behaviour before constancy achieved
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bussey and bandura reported what about children as young as 4 with gender toys?
felt good playing with gender appropritate bad bad about opposite
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this contradicts kohlberg and indtead supports gender schema theoru that suggests wht?
children begin absorbing gender-appropriate info as soon as id male/female
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:( methodological issues
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how was kohlberg's theory developed?
from interviews w/ kids as young as 2
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what were questions tailored toward?
specific agegroup
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but he may not have acknowledged what about very young children lack?
lack vocab to express understanding
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therefore children may have complex ideas about gender but inability to?
verbally articulate these
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therefore he's testing expression rather than?
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:( SLT comparison
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SLT take issue with which notion about gender dev?
occurs as conseq of natural maturation
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SLT places much more emphasis on what than kohlberg?
external influences like socialisation
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ev suggests what about boys and girls differences?
much less flexible concept of gender roles
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and they show greater resistance to what?
opposite sex-activities
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what is the likely origin of thse differences?
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and who would find it difficult to expalin?
perspective of cog-dev theory
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- stages in development



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how many stages did he believe there were?


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his cognitive-developmental theory of gender is based on what idea about child's inderstanding of gender?


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