Gender and Patterns of crime

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1. What is happening to poverty and who supports it?

  • Poverty is becoming feminised in last 40 years as women more likely to experience low pay and benefits, female crimes like shop lifting/mugging increased as reaction to poverty, Walklate - shoplifting/prostitution often due to economic need e.g kids
  • Poverty is becoming feminised in last 20 years as women more likely to experience low pay and benefits, female crimes like shop lifting/fraud increased as reaction to poverty, Walklate - shoplifting/prostitution often due to economic need e.g kids
  • Poverty is becoming masculinised in last 20 years as men more likely to experience low pay and benefits, male crimes like shop lifting/fraud increased as reaction to poverty, Walklate - shoplifting/prostitution often due to economic need e.g kids
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2. Evaluation of differential socialisation and differential controls?

  • Women are growing confidence so those issues are less relevant, social changes mean women get more important roles in society where they have more control over men, official figures may underestimate the female crime rate (chivalry factor/skill)
  • Women are shrinking confidence so those issues are more relevant, social changes mean women are getting more important roles in society where they have more control over men, official figures may underestimate the female crime rate
  • Women are growing confidence so those issues are less relevant, social changes mean women are getting less important roles in society where they have less control over men, official figures may overderestimate the female crime rate

3. What is differential controls and who said it?

  • Heidensohn - Females more conformist because patriarchal society imposes control over behaviour, shown in 3 ways
  • Smart & Oakley - Females more conformist because patriarchal society imposes control over behaviour, shown in 3 ways
  • Lees - Females more conformist because patriarchal society imposes control over behaviour, shown in 3 ways

4. What can this explanation be undermined by?

  • Commitment to the rules may be undermined by social class and age
  • Commitment to the rules may be undermined by social class and ethnicity
  • Commitment to the rules may be undermined by ethnicity and age

5. What is the most common age to be convicted for males and females?

  • 15 for males, 20 for females
  • 19 for males, 16 for females
  • 19 for females, 16 for males

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