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Explain the differences in male and female chromosomes. (AO1)
Women have 2 X chromosomes (**). Men have 1 X and 1 Y (XY).
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The Y chromosome promotes the production of.... and what do androgens cause?(AO1)
Of testosterone and other male sex hormones, which cause men to develop testes rather than a uterus. The androgens make the brain develop differently to a womans, resulting in different characteristics and behaviours.
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Explain Klinefelters syndrome (AO1)
People with klinefelters are biologically male but have an extra X chromosome (XXY). The physical effects include underdeveloped genitals and psychological effects include poor language skills.
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Testosterone is produced in larger qualities by men and effects several types of "male behaviours", what did Dabbs et al (1995) find? What did Coates et al (2008) find?(AO1)
Dabbs found that violent offenders had higher levels of testosterone than non-violent offenders. Coates found that financial traders with higher testosterone levels took greater levels.
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Women have higher levels of oxytocin, what has it been linked to and what did Klaver et al (2009) find? (AO1)
Oxytocin is linked to increased sociability and seems to effect the formation of bonds and attachments between people. Klaver found that higher levels of oxytocin are linked to improved memory for faces.
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Briefly explain the case study of 'David Reimer' and why it supports the biological explanation. (AO2)
Born a boy,penis burnt off accident. Dr money persuaded his parents to raise him as a girl, Brenda. In high school Brenda became more masculine and depressed because she felt she didnt fit in. Parents told her truth at 14. Reassigned herself male.
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What did Reiner and Gearhart (2004) find when they studied 16 genetic males born with almost no penis? (AO2)
2 were raised as males and remained as males. The remaining 14 were raised as girls. 8 of them reassigned themselves male before the age of 16. highlights the importance of biological factors.
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What is congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and what does it show?(AO2)
CAH occurs when ** females have prenatally high levels of male hormones resulting in varying degrees of external male genitalia. CAH shows the eventual outcome for each individual is what appears to be a complex and unpredictable combination...
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Why is it a problem that research on genes and hormones is mainly correlational? (AO2)
Cause and effect cannot be established. Consequently whilst it indicates a relationship between variables it does not indicate the direction of causality. Whilst higher testosterone levels might cause people to take greater risks, it might be risks..
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What is the real life application of the research into genetics? (AO2)
Since 1968 the international olympics committee tested all athletes and excluded all but ** females and XY males, which meant AIS individuals couldn't compete.In 1991 there was a ruling that genetic sex would no longer determine entry into the games.
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What is the problem with using data from case studies, such as David Reimer or small samples of abnormal individuals? (AO2)
The main problem is the lack of generalisability from abnormal individuals to the 'normal' population. A further criticism of the research is that intersexes may be more vulnerable to social influences than 'normal' individuals because their bio..
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Many gender role behaviours are related to reproductive strategies, in terms of mate choice what do men and women look for to enhance their survival and increase reproductive success? (AO1)
Men mate as frequently as they can and select women who are more fertile and healthy, relates to physical attractiveness. Women seek signs of fertility but are more concerned to find a partner who can provide resources, such as food.
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What did Wayforth and Dunbar(1995) find when they used personal adds to assess what males and females were seeking and offering? (AO2)
The results were as predicted-44% of males sought a physically attractive partner compared with 22% of women. 50% of women offered attractiveness whereas only 34% of males did. Shows evolved mate choice.
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What did Buss et al (1990) find when they studied what women and men look for in a potential mate, in a large number of cultures? (AO2)
They found that whilst men consistently prioritised youth and physical attractiveness, women placed a higher premium on wealth and status. This may reflect biological differences between men and women that have arisen because of evolutionary process
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Women are more focused on interpersonal concerns,i.e.the relationships between people. What did Taylor et al (2000) propose?(AO1)
That this may stem from the different challenges faced by men and women when dealing with stress in the EEA. Ancestral males would deal with threats by fighting/fleeing. Females as primary caregivers would protect themselves&young by tend&befriend.
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What did Ennis et al (2001) find when they conducted a natural experiment to test male-female differences to stress response? (AO2)
They sampled levels of cortisol a week before students exams(low stress)&immediately before an exam(high stress). In male participants there was an increase in cortisol levels& in women a significant decrease. shows different stress responses.
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One criticism of the evolutionary approach is that it is determinist.. explain(AO2)
It suggests that our genes specify exactly how we will behave. For example it suggests that genes specify that men naturally become hunters&women long to take care of children. It fails to take into account that genes only predispose us to behaviours
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Research has shown that women are better at empthasising and men are better at systematising. Baron Cohen (2002) calls this E-S theory and has proposed...?(A01)
That gender difference may be the result of selection pressure for males who develop better hunting strategies&females who are focused on rearing children,suggests that males who were able to systematise with greater precision would've had evolutiona
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A Systematising Quotient Questionnaire was developed to demonstrate the different cognitive styles of men and women. What did it find? (AO2)
It supported E-S theory in finding that 83% of males are systematisers and a similar proportion of women are empathisisers.
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Autism is predominatly a male condition&could be seen as an example of an extreme male brain which excels at systematising and lacks ability to empathise. Explain...(AO2)
Autism is characterised by difficulties with social communication and relationships and it appears strongly linked to an inability to understand what others are thinking and feeling. People with autism score high at systematising& low at empathising.
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Why did Eagly and Wood(1999) argue that the evolutionary explanation isn't fully correct?(AO1)
Evolutionary theory proposes that selective pressures caused both physical&psychological sex differences. Eagly&Woods theory suggests that selective pressures only cause physical differences&these lead to sex role allocations&psychological sex differ
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Explain the social role theory's explanation of division of labour. (AO1)
That the biologically based physical differences between men and women allow them to perform certain tasks more efficiently.E.g mens speed and upper body strength facilitate their efficient performance of tasks that require intense bursts of energy
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Explain the social role theory's explanation of mate choice (AO1)
That what men&women seek in a partner can be related to their social roles rather than the reproductive value of certain traits. The physical differences between me&women create social roles-men=providers,women=domestic role.
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What did Eagly and Wood suggest&find when they re-examined Buss' study of 37 cultures? (AO2)
Pattern of sex differences can be just as well explained by social roles. Buss' study showed that in all cultures women seek men with resources&men prefer younger physically attractive women. Women earn less so seek resources. Men want younger to be
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Eagly and Wood supported this identification of power as the root of mate choice by using the Gender Empowerment Measure to identify which cultures had greater or less gender equality. They found?(AO2)
That when women had a higher status and male-female division of labour was less pronounced, sex differences in mating preferences became less pronounced. This further suggests that social roles are the driving force in psychological sex differences.
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Research studies have found that social factors do influence psychological gender differences, Williams found? (AO2)
That children in a Canadian town with access to multiple TV channels had more strong sex type views than those who had one or no TV channels. Thus supports social role theory..
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However, what does Luxen (2007) suggest? (AO2)
That evolutionary theory can explain this and provides a simpler theory. Luxen argues that behaviour is at least as important as physical charcterism&therefore selective pressure would act directly on behaviour to create psychological as well as phys
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The approach taken by Eagly and Wood is a social constructionist one, explain (AO2)
An approach which suggests that much of human behaviour is an invention or outcome of a particular society or culture. There is no objectivity, such as a real difference between men and women or if there is one it is not relevant.
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Explain the real world application of the social role theory (AO2)
The evolutionary approach has been seen as a driving force against gender equality since it might be seen to imply that sex differences are innate&cannot be changed by altering social context.Social role supports feminist view that changes in social
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What is gender dysphoria? (AO1)
The condition of feeling one's emotional and psychological identity as male or female to be opposite to one's biological sex.
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A number of psychologists have proposed that gender dysphoria is related to mental illness, trauma or maladaptive upbringing. What did Coates et al (1991) find when they produced a case history of a boy (AO1)
The boy developed GID and Coates proposed that this was a defensive reaction to the boys mothers depression following an abortion. This occurred when the boy was 3, a time in development when a child is sensitive to gender issues. Trauma->cross dress
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What did Cole et al (1997) find why they studied 435 individuals experiencing gender dysphoria?(AO2)
That the range of psychological conditions was no greater than found in the normal population, which suggests that gender dysphoria is unrelated to trauma or pathological families.
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Coates et al used a case study, what is the problem with this? (AO2)
Case studies are harder to generalise because they deal with only one person/event/group, we can never be sure whether conclusions drawn from this particular case apply elsewhere.Case studies are also susceptible to researcher bias...
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Both explanations of gender dysphoria are reductionist, explain(AO2)
Because neither considers the other approach.This can be considered a strength because it allows us to fully isolate cause&effect&understand specific explanation in greater depth.But not all possible factors are considered which could leave many aspe
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What did Stoller(1975)propose causes gender dysphoria(AO1)
It results from distorted parental attitudes. In clinical interviews diagnosed with GID Stoller observed that they displayed overly close mother-son relationships. This would likely lead to greater female identification&confused gender identity.
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What did Zucker et al (1996) find when they studied 115 boys with concerns about their gender identity and the mothers of the boys who were eventually diagnosed with GID, find?(AO2)
64% were also diagnosed with separation anxiety, compared with 34% of the boys who's symptoms were subclinical. This points to some kind of disordered attachment to a mother as a factor in GID.
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De Cegile (2000) studied the case of "James" who developed gender dysphoria after the death of his grandmother who raised him and found?(AO2)
After long family therapy aimed at him talking about his grandmother, his gender dysphoria gradually disappeared.
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What did Rekers (1986) find when they conducted research on "gender disturbed" boys who show cross-gender identity?(AO2)
He found that in a group of 36 boys, there was no father figure in the homes of 75% of the most disturbed and 21% in the least disturbed.
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What is the main weakness of the mother-son relationship causes of gender dysphoria? (AO2)
It does only explain male to female transsexuals. Gender bias- because it does not take into account female to male transsexuals and therefore lacks validity as it does not take into account the whole of the target population.
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What is brain sex theory of transsexualism? and what area of the brain has been studied? (AO1)
It is based on the fact that male and female brains are different and perhaps do not match their genetic sex. One area of the brain that has been studied is the BSTc, which is located in the thalamus.
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Explain the relationship between the BSTc and sex.(AO1)
On average the BSTc is twice as large in heterosexual men as in heterosexual women and contains twice as many neurons. The explanation may be that the size of the BSTc correlates with preferred sex rather than biological sex.
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Zhou et al (1995)&Kruijver et al (2000) found?(AO1)
That the number of neurons in the BSTc of male to female transsexuals was similar to that of females and vice versa.
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What did Rametti et al (2011) find when they studied the brains of female to male transsexuals before they started transgender hormone therapy?(AO2)
In terms of amounts of white matter in their brains, the female to male transsexuals had a more similar pattern to individuals who share their gender identity (males) than those who share their biological sex(females).
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However, what did Chung et al (2002) note?(AO2)
That the differences in the BSTc volume between men and women does not develop until adulthood, whereas most transsexuals report that their feelings of gender dysphoria began in early childhood. This suggests consequence not cause of dysphoria.
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Explain Kolbergs first stage of gender development: "gender labelling" (AO1)
Occurs between the ages of 2&3.Children at this stage label themselves and others as a boy/girl.This label is based on outward appearance only.Children will change the gender labels as appearances change.
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Slaby and Frey (1975) conducted a study to support "gender labelling".(AO2)
They found that 2 year olds were 76% correct in identifying their sex, whereas 3 year olds were 90% correct. This shows an increasing ability to label themselves as predicted by Kolberg.
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Explain Kolbergs second stage of gender development: "gender stability" (AO2)
Occurs around the age of 4.Children recognise that gender is something that is consistent over time.Thus there gender concept is one of stability but does not yet recognise consistency.They do not recognise that gender is consistent across situations
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Slaby and Frey also conducted research to support this stage of gender development (AO2)
They asked young children questions such as "were you a little boy/girl when you were a baby?".The answers which the children gave showed that they did not recognise that these traits were stable over time until 3/4 years old.
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Explain Kolbergs final stage of gender development: "gender consistency" (AO1)
In the final stage around 6, children come to realise that gender is consistent across situations.Thus they have now developed full gender constancy.When a child has acquired gender constancy, they start to learn about gender appropriate behaviour,
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Slaby and Frey also conducted research to support "gender constancy"(AO2)
They asked children questions such as "if you played football would you be a boy/girl?". They found that children who scored high on stability and constancy showed greatest interest in same sex models-> increasing sense of constancy leads gender appr
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As well as Slaby and Frey, Munroe, Shimmin and Munroe(1984) conducted evidence to support all of Kobergs stages(AO2)
They found children in several cultures went through the 3 stages proposed by Kolberg:basic gender identity, gender stability and gender constancy.
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However, Slaby and Frey did find that gender constancy...(AO2)
Appeared at a younger age than Kolberg suggested, as young as 5.
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What did Martin and Little(1990)find?(AO2)
That children under the age of 4 showed no signs of stability let alone signs of constancy,but did display strong gender stereotypes about what boys and girls were permitted to do.This shows that they have acquired gender relevant information before
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A number of studies do not support Kolbergs theory, for example Bussey and Bandura (1992) found?(AO2)
That boys and girls aged 4 said they felt good about playing with gender appropriate toys and awful about playing with gender appropriate ones. Kolberg would suggest that this wouldnt happen until later.
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Gender schema theory goes further than Kolberg...(AO2)
This theory helps to explain why childrens gender role beliefs and attitudes often change little after childhood. The gender schemas that have been established tend to be maintained because gender consistent information is attended to and remembered.
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Carol Martin and Charles Halverson developed the gender schema theory as an alternative to Kolbergs theory, what do they suggest?(AO1)
The process of acquiring gender relevant information happens before gender constancy. They also claim that basic gender labelling is sufficient for a child to identify himself/herself as a boy/girl or take interest in appropriate behaviours.
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The main concept of gender schema theory is the idea of schemas, explain(AO1)
Children learn gender related schemas from their interactions with other children and adults and the media.Children usually only acquire information within their ingroup gender (the one they identify with)
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Martin and Halverson also go further than Kolberg in suggesting how the acquisition of schemas affects later behaviour, in terms of memory and attention... explain(AO1)
Gender beliefs can lead children to hold very fixed gender attitudes because they ignore information that is no consistent with ingroup information.In this way gender schemas have a prefound effect on what is remembered.
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Martin and Little(1990) found?(AO2)
That children under the age of 4 showed no signs of gender stability let alone signs of gender constancy, but did display strong gender stereotypes about what girls and boys were permitted to do. Before kolberg suggested in line with GST.
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A study by Bussey and Bandura (1992) contradicts Kolbergs theory and suggests that gender schema theory may be a more accurate explanation of a childs gender development. Explain(AO2)
They found that boys and girls aged 4 said they felt good about playing with gender appropriate toys and awful about playing with gender inappropriate ones. Kolberg would suggest that this wouldn't happen until later.
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Martin and Little (1983) conducted a study that supported the idea that children pay more attention to information consistent with gender schemas, explain(AO2)
They found that when children were asked to recall pictures of people, children under 6 recalled more of the gender consistent ones (male firefighter) than gender inconsistent ones (male nurse)
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A study by Bradbard et al (1986) shows how gender schemas are related to memory, explain (AO2)
They told 4-9 year olds that certain gender neutral items(e.g pizza)were boy/girl items.Participants took greater interest in the items that were labelled as their ingroup.One week later they were able to remember more details about ingroup objects.
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However, Hoffman (1998) found? (AO2)
That children whose mothers work have less stereotyped views of what men do. This suggests that children are not entirely fixed on gender schemas and can take on some gender inconsistent ideas.
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Eisenberg et al found?(AO2)
3-4 year olds justified their gender specific choice of toys without reference to gender stereotypes.
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A big limitation of the gender schema theory is the issue of individual experiences, explain(AO2)
Gender schema theory cannot explain why different children with much of the same environmental influences respond differently to gender appropriate behaviour.E.g. this theory cannot explain why some girls prefer action figures&some boys prefer barbie
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Alburt Bandura (1991) developed the social cognitive theory to emphasise the role of cognitive factors in learning, explain(AO2)
The source of information is social (parents,peers and media)&what is learned is a cognition-something stored in the mind.Bandura proposed that gender role behaviour is the development of learning from social agents who model&reinforce gender role
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Bandura et al (1961) bobo doll studies can be used to support Bunduras theory, explain(AO2)
Children in the aggression condition reported a great deal of physically and verbally aggressive behaviour,resembling the model.Children in the non-aggression group showed no signs of aggression, shows that modelling can effect childrens behaviours
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Although this study was based on aggression and not gender roles. Bandura also found...(AO2)
That boys responded more to the behaviour that men presented to the doll and girls responded more to the womens actions. In turn this study provides evidence for the reliability of the social cognitive theory due to supporting evidence.
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Banduras cognitive theory is quite holisic, explain (AO2)
Because as well as considering social factors, he did not ignore biological ones. Bandura recognised that the starting point for social learning is knowing which biological sex you are which is largely based in our biology.
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Peers are important because they offer a model of gender appropriate behaviour, what did Perry and Bussey(1979) find?(AO1)
They showed film clips to children aged 8 and 9.In the films boys&girls were seen selecting an apple or a pear,both gender neutral items.Later children were given a choice of fruit.Boys selected what they had seen another boy select&same for girls
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However, it has been suggested that later on in childhood peer behaviour does not create gender role stereotypes but simply reinforce existing ones. Lamb et al(1979) found?(AO2)
Observed preschool children at play and found that when male type behaviour was reinforced in girls the behaviour continued for a shorter time than when male type behaviour was reinforced in boys. Peer reinforcement mainly acts as a reminder.
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There is evidence to support biological factors and therefore criticises the role of social influences, such as the case study of David Reimer.(AO2)
Born a boy,penis burnt off accident. Dr money persuaded his parents to raise him as a girl, Brenda. In high school Brenda became more masculine and depressed because she felt she didnt fit in. Parents told her truth at 14. Reassigned herself male.
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What did Bussey and Bandura find concerning media influences on gender (AO1)
That the media portrays males as independent,directive and perusing engaging occupational and recreational activities.By contrast women are usually shown as dependent,unambitious and emotional.
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What did Hodges et al (1981) find concerning media influences (AO1)
That men are also likely to be shown exercising control over events, where as women are frequently shown to be more at the mercy of others.
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What did McGhee and Freuh (1980) find?
That those who have high exposure to these differential gender representations tend to display more gender stereotypical gender role conceptions than light viewers.
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In the 1970's a valley in Canada surrounded by high mountains had never been able to receive TV signal. Tannis Williams (1985) studied the effects of exposure to TV and found?(AO2)
That children in a Canadian town with access to multiple TV channels had more strong sex type views than children in towns with one or no TV channels.
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Charleston et al (2000)looked at the effects of TV on a community previously without it and found?(AO2)
found no changes in aggressive behaviour and concluded that this was because of preexisting community values that reduced the effect of exposure to the media.Although aggression suggests that simply exposing children to stereotypes is not sufficient
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Williams and Best(1990)produced evidence of cultural similarities in gender stereotypes. They tested 2,8000 students in 30 different countries using a 300 item adjective checklist and found?(AO1)
Participants were asked to decide for each adjective whether it was more frequently associated with men/women.There was a broad consensus across countries.Men were seen as more dominant,aggressive&autonomous.Women were seen as more nurturant&deferent
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Buss (1989)explored what men and women look for in a marriage partner. The study involved over 10,000 people from 37 countries and found?(AO2)
That women desired mates who had good financial prospects&men placed more importance on on physical attractiveness&men universally wanted mates who were younger than them&both sexes wanted mates who were intellegent,kind&dependable.Similarities.
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There are some weaknesses of Williams and Bests study...(AO2)
There was no 'equal' category, although participants were allowed to say 'cannot say'.This means the division between male and female characteristics may be exaggerated.The task was related to stereotypes¬ actual behaviours.
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Margaret Mead(1935) conducted a classic study of social groups is Papua New Guinea, providing evidence for social role differences and found?(AO1)
The Arapesh men&women were gentle,responsive&cooperative.The Mungamour men&women were violent,aggressive&seeking power.The Tchambuli exhibited gender role differences women were dominant,impersonal&managerial.Men were emotionally dependent.
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However,Freeman (1984)worked with native Samoans and?(AO2)
Was told that they had provided Mead with the information she wanted to here. But Freeman has also been criticised for being inaccurate.
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Mead later changed her view to one of cultural relativism, when she re-analysed her data she found?(AO2)
That although both sexes of the Arapesh were non aggressive&both sexes of the Mundungamor were aggressive, men were more aggressive than women in all societies.Some behaviours innate but the degree to which theyre expressed is relative to the culture
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Card 2


The Y chromosome promotes the production of.... and what do androgens cause?(AO1)


Of testosterone and other male sex hormones, which cause men to develop testes rather than a uterus. The androgens make the brain develop differently to a womans, resulting in different characteristics and behaviours.

Card 3


Explain Klinefelters syndrome (AO1)


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Testosterone is produced in larger qualities by men and effects several types of "male behaviours", what did Dabbs et al (1995) find? What did Coates et al (2008) find?(AO1)


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Women have higher levels of oxytocin, what has it been linked to and what did Klaver et al (2009) find? (AO1)


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