GDR key dates

Yalta Conference: the meeting of Stalin, Churchill and Roosevelt and it decided that Germany will be divided into four zones. This would be overseen by the Allied Control Council.
Feb 1945
1 of 84
Education offered to the working class. In this year only 3% of University students were working class, but this increased to 58% by 1950.
1945
2 of 84
Potsdam Conference: meeting of Stalin, Atlee and Truman where they decided to initiate a program of denazification. The Allies could not agree on reparations which caused tension between the USSR and the USA.
June 1945
3 of 84
Land reforms: the SED seized all land and redistributed it more fairly across the population. 33% of all useful agricultural land was redistributed to peasants, but due to the absence of machinery and livestock much of it was abandoned.
September 1945
4 of 84
The KPD and SPD merged to form the SED. This would create one huge communist party. Western powers did not support the merger. On 31st March, in western zones of Berlin, 20,000 people voted against the merger, with only 3000 voting for.
1946
5 of 84
The influence of religion was being removed from schools
1946
6 of 84
USA suspends reparations to the USSR in retalation for the Russian's refusal to deliver foodstuffs.
May 1946
7 of 84
Bizonia created: this was the joining of the UK and USA sectors of Germany. The two countries saw the need to recover a poverty stricken Germany, but also gang up on the USSR.
Summer 1946
8 of 84
Berlin elections held, SED recieved 20% of the vote
Oct 1946
9 of 84
Huge amounts of unemployment. Population: 19 million
1947
10 of 84
Marshall Aid: America offers financial aid to Europe. The USSR did not attend the Paris conferenc ein which it was discussed. This essentially divided Europe into two.
June 1947
11 of 84
The Deutschmark and Ostmark are introduced. This marked a greater divison between the two states.
1948
12 of 84
Trizonia created: now France also merged its sector
May 1948
13 of 84
Berlin Crisis: The USSR cut off all electricity supplies to West Berlin, as well as any canal routes to the Western Zones. The Western powers responded with the Berlin Airlift.
June 1948
14 of 84
Berlin crisis ends
May 1949
15 of 84
FRG is formed
May 1949
16 of 84
GDR is formed and Ulbricht becomes General Secretary
7th October 1949
17 of 84
Volkskammer created. People's chmaber - contained reps. from all political parties but in theory the SED held authority.
1949
18 of 84
Landerkammer created. Represented the 5 Lander (states). They could veto legislation.
1949
19 of 84
Stasi created: to defend the state from sabotage. There was 1 Stasi member for every 63 citizens.
March 1950
20 of 84
1st FYP: introduced centralised state planning and aimed to develop heavy industry. There was still a lakc of consumer goods.
1951-55
21 of 84
GDR joins COMECON. Supposed to increase economic performance. However, heavily suited to the needs of the USSR.
Sept 1950
22 of 84
Stasi workforce grew from 1100 to 8800
1950-52
23 of 84
Religious children faced discrimination in schools
Jan 1951
24 of 84
Over 331,000 people move to the FRG
1953
25 of 84
Stalin dies. De-stalinisation sees some softening in attitude towardss the churches.
March 1953
26 of 84
The New Course accepted by Politburo. Called for a slowdown in the development of socialism so that the gov. may gain popular support first.
9th June 1953
27 of 84
June Uprising: Ulbricht announced a 10% rise in productivity but no rise in wages. This sparked protests, motivated by all the failings of the SED regime.
June 1953
28 of 84
Reparations to the USSR are ended and the USSR gives them additional funding
1st January 1954
29 of 84
June Uprising leads the GDR to join the Warsaw Pact
May 1955
30 of 84
New Course abandoned
June 1955
31 of 84
Seven Year Plan: aimed to increase worker's productivity by 58%, so living standards took a back seat
1959
32 of 84
2nd FYP: focused on consumer goods and raising living standards
1956-59
33 of 84
Operation Rose: east German troops began constructing the Berlin wall in the night. The wall was made from concrete slabs and barbed wire.
13th August 1961
34 of 84
New Economic System (NES) set up to compete with the FRG's economy. Focus on quantity of goods rather than quality.
Jan 1963-68
35 of 84
East German athletes won 23 medals at Tokyo Olympic Games
1964
36 of 84
Radio station, DT64, was introduced. It played pop music and foreign music.
1964
37 of 84
Family Code: men and women should share equally in domestic work to promote gender equality
1966
38 of 84
Economic System of Socialism (ESS): to be more communist. Planned to extend agriculture and trade.
1968
39 of 84
Came third in the medal table at the Olympics in Mexico
1968
40 of 84
Brezhnev Doctrine: stated that the USSR would intervene shoud any of the Republics or satellite states find themselves in trouble
1968
41 of 84
Ostpolitik: acknowledgement of the GDR. GDR became reliant on the FRG for loans.
1969
42 of 84
Start of state coopperation with the church
1969
43 of 84
Brandt visits the GDR and is welcomed by the crowds
1970
44 of 84
Treaty of Moscow: FRG and USSR agreed to no territorial claims
1970
45 of 84
Treaty of Warsaw: FRG accepted the border between the GDR and Poland
1970
46 of 84
Honecker takes over from Ulbricht
1971
47 of 84
The 4 Power's Agreement: West Berliner's could visit East Berlin which stopped the conflict over Berlin and meant there was more money going into the East's economy
1971
48 of 84
85% of families owned a TV. 60-90% of these watched Western programmes.
1971
49 of 84
GDR received over DM 585 million in credits or loans from the FRG
1972
50 of 84
The Basic Treaty: Both acknowledge the existence of the other as a separate state
1972
51 of 84
Oil Crisis: the lack of oil affected the GDR who had a lack of natural resources and was reliant on oil for energy
1973
52 of 84
Children have complusory militray training
1973
53 of 84
GDR joins the UN - this gave them greater international recognition
1973
54 of 84
Helsinki Accords: agreed to improving human rights. Signed by both Honekcer and Brezhnev, but neither kept to these rules.
August 1975
55 of 84
The Treaty of Friendship: signed between the USSR and the GDR. Showed that the GDR were loyal to both the west and the USSR.
1975
56 of 84
75% of people felt there was greater social security in the GDR than there was in the FRG
1976
57 of 84
Pastor Brusewitz sets himself on fire to protest against Church-State co-operation
18th August 1976
58 of 84
GDR had fewer hospital beds than the FRG - 107.5 beds compared to 118.8 beds
1977
59 of 84
Concordat: Honecker met with Church leaders to discuss a formal agreement between the Chruch and State. He allowed them to build new religious centres and allowed them more media time.
March 1978
60 of 84
Huge overspending on soical welfare, immense shortages, huge queues for the basics and the quality was often extremely poor, especially whne it came to housing.
1980s
61 of 84
FYP: aimed to reduce imports and increase exports, speed up technological and scientific advances while reducing domestic energy consumption
1981-85
62 of 84
Honecker prevented from visiting the FRG by the USSR
1982
63 of 84
The GDR receives a loan of DM 1 billion from the FRG
1983
64 of 84
Another loan from the FRG - DM 950 million
1984
65 of 84
The USSR accounted for 29 to 34% of the GDR's foreign trade
1985
66 of 84
11th SED Congress - Having inititaed Glasnost and Perestroika, Gorby suggests that the GDR adopt such policies
April 1986
67 of 84
7 million free meals provided for workers in communal canteens
1987
68 of 84
Honecker visits the FRG
Sept 1987
69 of 84
Peace groups become more active
1987
70 of 84
Elections were held
May 1989
71 of 84
Sinatra Doctrine: Gorby announces that the Brezhnev Doctrine is dead, meaning that the satellite states could no longer rely on the USSR to intervene with their problems
July 1989
72 of 84
Hungary opens its borders with Austria
Sept 1989
73 of 84
HUge demonstrations in Leipzig - St Nicholas Church had regualr Monday protests
Oct 1989
74 of 84
Honecker resigns and is replaced by Krenz
17th Oct 1989
75 of 84
Schabowski makes error, the gates were opened at 11:30pm
9th Nov 1989
76 of 84
SED falling apart - Mielke and various other former Ministers resign while lower rank members lost confidence and direction
13th Nov 1989
77 of 84
Krenz resigns
4th Dec 1989
78 of 84
SED reinvents itself - the position of General Secretary is abolished, as well as the Politburo and the Central Committee. They rename themselves the SED-PDS.
9th Dec 1989
79 of 84
First Free Elections int he GDR. SED renamed Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS) in Feb. The CDU win the elections.
18th March 1990
80 of 84
Treaty on currency union
18th May 1990
81 of 84
Final Settlement - signed in Moscow, it allowed the reunification to go ahead
12th Sept 1990
82 of 84
Four Power status in Berlin was ended
2nd Oct 1990
83 of 84
Germany is formally reunified
3rd Oct 1990
84 of 84

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

1945

Back

Education offered to the working class. In this year only 3% of University students were working class, but this increased to 58% by 1950.

Card 3

Front

June 1945

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

September 1945

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

1946

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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