GCSE Chemistry 1 (AQA)

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  • Created by: Ash
  • Created on: 13-11-13 18:13
Why do atoms have no overall charge?
This means there is a balance of protons and electrons.
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Protons, neutrons, electrons: Name their charge, mass and position.
Protons: positive, in the nucleus, mass of 1. Neutrons: Neutral, mass of 1 in the nucleus. Electrons: Negative, orbit around the nucleus and mass negligible.
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1. Atomic number = 2. Atomic Mass number =
1. Number of Protons 2. Neutrons + Protons
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Explain Ionic Bonding, with examples?
Ionic bonding happens between metal (+) and non-metals (-); involves donating from the metal. For instance Sodium chloride and Magnesium fluoride.
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Explain Covalent bonding, with examples?
Happens between non-metals and non-metals; involves the sharing of electrons, eg - chloride and carbon dioxide.
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Balancing Equations: A)H2 + O2 --> H2O B)C3H8 + O2 --> CO2 + H2O C)Na + H2O --> NaOH + H2
A)2 H2 + O2 --> 2 H2O B)C3H8 + 5 O2 --> 3 CO2 + 4 H2O C)2 Na + 2 H2O --> 2 NaOH + H2
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Give the Chemical name and formula for Limestone...
*Calcium Carbonate CaO + CO2-->CaCO3
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Advantages of quarrying limestone...
-Provides jobs for people -Provides country with valuable resource -Limestone products used to neutralise soils and acidic lakes
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Disadvantages of quarrying limestone...
-Destruction of habitats and ecosystems -Creates noise, visual and dust pollution (Noise in quieter areas). -Damaged by acid rain -Spoils natural landscape
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Describe the reaction of calcium oxide with water and the use of lime water...
*Calcium oxide reacts with water to produce calcium hydroxide →Can be used in neutralisation of acids.
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Describe the reaction of Lime water and Carbon dioxide....
*Lime water reacts with carbon dioxide to produce calcium carbonate. →lime water can be used to test for the presence of Carbon Dioxide, (Lime water turns cloudy).
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What is mortar made from?
Cement powder + Water + Sand--> Mortar
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What is concrete made from?
Cement + Water + Sand + Aggregate --> Concrete
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Carbonates react with acids to produce...
Salt + Water + Carbon Dioxide
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How does Limestone decompose?
Limestone can decompose in a rotary kiln, by thermal decomposition (the breakdown of substances, with heat). Calcium Carbonate → Calcium Oxide + Carbon Dioxide
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Explain the limestone cycle...
Limestone (CaCO3)--> Thermal decomposition--> Quicklime (CaO) --> Add a little water -->Slaked lime (Solid), Ca(OH)2-->Limewater (aq) (Ca(OH)2)
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What is Cement made from?
Calcium Oxide + Clay + Water --> Cement
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Where are metals found and what is a metal ore?
Metals are found in the Earth's crust and a metal ore is a rock which has enough metal or metal compound, economically worthwhile extracting.
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Link how metals are found in the Earth's crust to their reactivity...
Unreactive metals (gold) are found native on the Earth but most metals are found as compounds, which need chemical reactions to be extracted.
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How can metals be extracted from their compounds?
Reduction - Metals less reactive than Carbon can be extracted from oxides through reduction. Electrolysis - Metals more reactive than Carbon can be extracted via electrolysis.
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How is copper extracted(formula)?
Copper oxide + Carbon --> Copper (impurities) + Carbon dioxide *Impure Copper --> Electrolysis --> Copper
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Explain extraction through Phytoming...
Phytoming uses plants to absorb metal compounds and then the plants are burned to produce ash that controls that contains the metal compounds.
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Explain extraction through Bioleaching...
Bioleaching uses bacteria to produce leachate solutions that contain metal compounds, from low grade ores then uses displacement or electrolysis to extract copper.
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Why is copper useful?
Copper is useful because it is a good conductor of electricity and heat. As well as being malleable and hard, but doesn't react with water. --> Used for water pipes, wires, pans and tanks.
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How can copper be extracted?
Copper can be extracted from high grade ores by heating the ores in a furnace. This process is known as smelting, which then requires electrolysis.
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What is an alloy?
Alloys are mixtures of metals that make pure metals better suited for everyday use
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What is Iron from the blast furnace?
Iron from the blast furnace can be reduced to produce 96% Iron, but the impurities make it brittle, yet strong.
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How are particles in pure iron arranged and why does this make them impractical for everyday use?
Particles in pure iron are arranged in layers, which can slide over each other, therefore they're very soft and easily malleable.
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Describe features of Low and high carbon and stainless steels....
Low carbon steels are easily shaped, high carbon steels are hard and stainless steels are resistant to corrosion.
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Name some alloys and uses...
Copper and Zinc --> Brass, gold alloy used for jewellery and coins are alloys.
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Where are the transition metals on the periodic table?
Between group 2 and 3 in the Periodic Table, is a group of metallic elements called the transition metals.
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What are some features of Transition metals?
*Are good conductors of heat and electricity. *Malleable and useful for structural materials (hip joints). *High melting points (except mercury).
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Why is aluminium and titanium useful?
Aluminium can be used for drinks cans, air planes and window frames. Titanium can be used in nuclear reactors and replacement hip joints. Both are low density and resistant to corrosion.
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Why should metals be recycled?
*Copper rich ores are being depleted. *Save money and energy. *Reduce damage to environment. *Ensures natural resources aren't used up.
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Define the term 'mixtures'....
Mixture consists of two or more elements or compounds that are not chemically joined and are easily separated.
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Describe what crude oil is and what it is composed of....
Crude oil is a mixture of different compounds, mainly composed of hydrocarbons , which vary in size affecting the properties and how they can be used as fuels.
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Link the size of hydrocarbons to it's properties...
The larger the hydrocarbon, the more viscous, the higher its boiling point, the less volatile it is and the less easily it ignites,
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What is fractional distillation used for?
Fractional distillation is used to separate crude oil into different fractions; each fraction contains hydrocarbon molecules with a similar number of carbon atoms. (Temps over 400oc to 70oc)
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What are alkanes?
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons, with no double bonds.
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Examples of alkanes and the general formula?
Methane, ethane, propane and butane. General formula: CnH2n+2 (2n+2 meant to be little)
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What are alkenes?
Alkenes are unsaturated hydrocarbons, with double bonds.
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Examples of alkenes and the general formula?
Ethene and Propene, general formula: CnH2n
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What does Carbon Dioxide and solid particles in the air cause?
Carbon dioxide causes global warming due to the greenhouse effect and solid particles in the air cause global dimming.
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What can be done to reduce the effects of Sulphur dioxide?
Sulphur can be removed from fuel before burning and sulphur dioxide can be removed from waste gases after combustion, which both add to costs.
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How are long chains of Hydrocarbons made useful?
Long chains are broken down into smaller hydrocarbons, breaking the double bonds by using porcelain catalyst and heat.
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How is alcohol made from ethene and by fermentation?
Alcohol is made from ethene by reacting ethene with steam and catalyst, phosphoric acid. Alcohol is made by the fermentation of sugar where sugar is converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
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Explain polymerisation...
Polymerisation is when alkene monomers join together to form polymers, by breaking the double bond.
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Explain about biodegradable polymers...
Most polymers aren't biodegrable and so can't be broken down by microbes, leading to problems with waste disposal.
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What are some uses for polymers?
Can be used to coat fabrics with a waterproof layer, implantable materials are used for tissue surgery and hydrogels can be used as wound dressings.
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What are some uses for specific polymers?
Polyvinyl (PVC) is used to make waterproof items and drain pipes, Polystyrene for the the casing of electrical appliances and poly(ethene) to make plastic bags and bottles.
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Explain disposing of plastics...
Burning plastics produces air pollution, producing carbon dioxide. Some plastic burn to produce harmful fumes. Can be dumped in landfill sites but the use means plastic waste builds up.
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How are oils obtained from plants (what sources)?
Found in fruit, seeds and nuts. Some fruits, seeds and nuts are rich in oils that can be extracted. The plant material is crushed and the oil removed by pressing or in some cases by distillation. Water and other impurities are removed.
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Why are vegetable oils used in cooking?
Vegetable oils have higher boiling points than water and so can be used to cook foods at higher temperatures than by boiling. This produces quicker cooking and different flavours but increases the energy that the food releases when it is eaten.
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How are long hydrocarbons made useful?
Long hydrocarbon chains (unsaturated) can be hardened by reacting them with hydrogen in the presence of a nickel catalyst at about 60 °C, breaking the double bonds.
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What are the properties of the hydrogenated oils?
The hydrogenated oils have higher melting points so they are solids at room temperature, making them useful as spreads and in cakes and pastries.
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What are the properties of emulsions?
Emulsions have a better textures, appearance and better coating ability --> in salad dressings, ice cream and mayonnaise.
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How do emulsifiers help emulsions mix?
Emulsifiers help stabilise an emulsion as they have a hydrophilic (water loving) head that mixes with water molecules and a hydrophobic (water hating) tail that mixes with oil droplets.
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Why was Wegener's theory disregarded?
As scientists believed that features of the Earth's surface, like mountain ranges, were caused by the shrinkage of the crust when the Earth cooled down after it's formation.
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What was evidence for the tectonic theory?
Wegner proposed theory of continental drift, continents seemed to fit together, rock types same between continents and fossils identical from continents.
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What did Miller and Urey's involve?
They sealed a mixture of water, ammonia, methane and hydrogen in a flask. The mixture was heated to evaporate water to produce water vapour. Electric sparks were passed through the mixture of water vapour and gases, simulating lightning.
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What did the experiment show?
Amino acids, building blocks of proteins were found; supported the theory of a ‘primordial soup’, the idea that complex chemicals needed for living things to develop could be produced naturally on the early Earth.
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Explain the composition of the atmosphere, from 4.6 billion years ago to the present...
1. formation of Earth (Earth is just crust and is cooling down), 2. volcanoes release methane, ammonia, water vapour & CO2. 3. Water vapour condenses to form oceans. 4. CO2 is dissolved in oceans, which has marine life and decompose and Co2 locked in
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What is the composition of the air?
For 200 million yrs, the proportions of gases in the atmosphere have been much the same as they are today: ■ about four-fifths (80%) nitrogen ■ about one-fifth (20%) oxygen ■ small proportions of various other gases, like Co2,water vapour & noble gas
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Why is the level of CO2 increasing?
Due to Volcanic activity, releases CO2 back into the atmosphere, burning carbon, locked up for million years, in fossil fuels,releases Carbon dioxide.
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What happens when CO2 and sea water react?
CO2 in atmosphere is reduced, the reaction produces; insoluble carbonates that are deposited as sediment and soluble hydrogencarbonates.
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How can air be separated in to fractions?
Air is a mixture of gases with different boiling points and can be fractionally distilled, by cooling air to liquid then heating, to provide a source of raw materials used in a variety of industrial processes.
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