GCSE AQA Geography globalisation case studies

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Motorsport valley - case study
Industrialised zone that relies on good communications
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Motorsport valley - location
England, located near major roads (M1) and airports (East Midlands Airport)
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Motorsport valley - features
40,000 employees, rise of TNCs (eg. Mitsubishi), led to a cluster of TNCs associated with motor racing (eg. Red Bull) between Northampton and Oxford, estimated £6 billion turnover (of which £3.6 billion is exported)
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Nike - case study
TNC
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Nike - HQs
HQ in Beaverton (Oregon, USA), regional HQs in Japan and China
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Nike - features
Factories typically located in LEDCs (eg. Guangzhou, China), subcontracts over 800 factories employing over 600,000 workers, 4,000 people in Oregon lost their jobs when it relocated
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China - case study
Rapid industrialisation
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China - causes of rapid development (people)
Xiaoping opened up the economy in 1978 by encouraging foreign investment, cheap labour (no min. wage), large population, employers have more income so become consumers and support other businesses
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China - causes of rapid development (businesses)
More TNCs and trading since 1978, SEZs set up (eg. Shenzhen), multiplier effect from TNCs, Three Gorges Dam built which produces 22,500MW energy to satisfy demand
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Whitelee wind farm - case study
Renewable energy source
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Whitelee wind farm - features
UK's largest on-shore wind farm, located 20mins from central Glasgow, 215 turbines producing up to 540MW electricity (enough to power 300,000 homes)
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Whitelee wind farm - how is it sustainable?
Less CO2 produced (contributes to global warming), it's an infinite resource (unlike fossil fuels)
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Kyoto protocol - case study
Global responses to climate change
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Kyoto protocol - what is it?
Industrialised countries have committed to reducing carbon emission to 5% below 1990 levels by 2012, UK's target was 12.5% which was acheived
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Kyoto protocol - success?
Reduced CO2 emissions in some countries (UK and France met targets), shows countries are concerned with global warming and are taking an active role in preventing it
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Kyoto protocol - failure?
Not all countries signed it (eg. America-big polluter, concerned with economy), not all targets met (Spain and Portugal made little or no progress), didn't take into account the cost of alternative energy sources
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Aylesbury Vale recycling - case study
Local initiatives to encourage sustainability
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Aylesbury Vale recycling - features
Recycling rates have increased over the past 2 years to over 1/2 of waste collected, the council's aim is to get this up to 60% by 2016
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Community Energy Champions Initiative - case study
Local initiatives to encourage sustainability
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Community Energy Champions Initiative - features
Aims to equip the community with knowledge and information to reduce their energy bills and save money, in return they spread the word
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Waitrose - case study
Locally produced food
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Waitrose - features
Supports British farmers/organic growers, responsible sourcing is important for Waitrose's desire for sustainable trading and customer's interest in quality of products
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Waitrose - Harry Hall
His family business has been supplying 4 varieties of strawberries to Waitrose for 20 years
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Food imports - how much is imported?
95% fruit and 1/2 vegetables,
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Food imports - how is it imported?
1% food imported by air which accounts for 11% of carbon emissions from food transportation
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River Indus - what is the problem?
The river goes through India and Pakistan, after the Independence Act of 1947 it took 13 years of negotiation before the Indus Treaty was signed by both countries
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River Indus - worries
There are concerns that conflict between countries would impact the treaty/international co-operation
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Kenyan flowers - case study
Change from subsistence to cash crop farming
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Kenyan flowers - location
Nakuru near Nairobi, situated near Lake Naivasha and Nairobi airport (main means for exports)
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Kenyan flowers - advantages of this location
Near to Lake Naivasha (main water source) and Nairobi airport (for exporting), suitable climate, large population providing a large potential workforce, located near roads (allowing for easier transportation and distribution of produce)
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Kenyan flowers - why has it changed?
Cash crop can help repay debt, generate a more stable income, land was previously used for small-scale producers which was not profitable for the country
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Kenyan flowers - advantages (social)
More people living in the area so more customers for other businesses, makes the area more sustainable, supports families
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Kenyan flowers - disadvantages (social)
Lower wages do not benefit the workers in the short or long term, even though there are more people living in the area there are fewer potential employees for other businesses
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Lake Naivasha - impacts
Water supplies affected by fertilisers (eutrophication), fertile land used for growing flowers (not food), water levels are falling, a settlement of 20,000 people could be supplied with water that is used for flowers
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

England, located near major roads (M1) and airports (East Midlands Airport)

Back

Motorsport valley - location

Card 3

Front

40,000 employees, rise of TNCs (eg. Mitsubishi), led to a cluster of TNCs associated with motor racing (eg. Red Bull) between Northampton and Oxford, estimated £6 billion turnover (of which £3.6 billion is exported)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

TNC

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

HQ in Beaverton (Oregon, USA), regional HQs in Japan and China

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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