GCSE additional chemistry

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What is the mass and charge of a proton?
1 and positive
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What is the mass and charge of a neutron?
1 and none
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What is the mass and charge of an electron?
1/2000 and negative
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Which group is the alkali metals in?
Group 1
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Which group are halogens in?
Group 7
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What are the properties of transition metals?
They form coloured compounds, they have a high melting and boiling points, they are used as a catalyst and are good conductors of electricity and heat.
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What do periods and groups tell you about the electronic structure?
The number of electrons in the outer shell determines the group and also determines the chemical properties of the elements.
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What is an ion?
A charged particle (An atom that loses or gains electrons)
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What is a cation?
A positively charged particle
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What is an anion?
A negatively charged particle
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What is ionic bonding?
The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions
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Why do ionic compounds have high melting/boiling points?
The lattice needs to be broken. The ions are held together in the lattice by very strong electrostatic forces. A lot of energy is needed to break these bonds
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What does electrolysis mean?
The process in which electrical energy from a D.C supply decomposes some compounds
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What is covalent bonding and why does it occur?
The sharing of a pair of electrons - because atoms need to gain electrons to satisfy both atoms
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What are the properties of Diamond?
Diamond has 4 strong covalent bonds and so are more rigid than graphite, therefore is the hardest substance known. Both diamond and graphite have high boiling and melting points
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What are the properties of Graphite?
Graphite has 3 strong covalent bonds - therefore conducts electricity because it only has 3 bonds. It has layers that can slide over each other easily and so is useful as a lubricant
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What are the properties of covalent compounds and how do they compare to ionic compounds?
Covalent compounds are single molecular and giant covalent. They have low melting and boiling points because they have weak intermolecular structures
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What does miscible mean?
Doesn't separate out into layers when allowed to stand
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What does immiscible mean?
Separates out into layers when allowed to stand
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How could you separate miscible liquids?
Through fractional distillation. The air is cooled to -200 degrees celsius, and carbon dioxide freezes and is removed. Water vapour condenses and is removed. Liquified air enters the fractionating column and is heated slowly
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How could you separate immiscible liquids?
Through a separating funnel. The two liquids are put into the funnel and are left for a short time to settle out and form two layers. The tap of the funnel is opened and the bottom liquid is allowed to run. The two liquids are now separate.
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What do all the elements in Group 1 have in common?
They are soft and can be cut with a knife. They have low melting points. They have one electron in their outer shell
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What do all elements in Group 7 have in common?
They have seven electrons in the outer shell and react with metals.
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What are noble gases and what can they be used for?
They are group 8 elements. They are inert and have full outer shells. It is difficult to make them react
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What are some examples of noble gases?
Argon and helium - used in welding and do not react with non metals / Xenon and Argon - used inside filament light bulbs / Helium - used in balloons and have a low density which helps them float
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How can you calculate the percentage mass of an element in a compound?
Percentage mass = no. of atoms of element x Ar/Mr x 100
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How can you work out the yield?
Percentage yield = actual yield / theoretical yield x 100
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What are the reasons for not achieving the expected yield?
The reaction may be incomplete as not all the reactants have been used up. Some of the product is lost during the practical preparation. There may be other unwanted reactions taking place.
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What are 3 products in the petrochemical industry?
Plastics, solvents, pharmaceuticals
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Why is it expensive to dispose of waste products?
The waste may have to be transported to a landfill site or it may have to be treated with another substance to make it safe
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Why would people object to have a new factory to manufacture plastics built near their home?
It could cause environmental problems - they may be toxic and damage the environment / It could cause social problems - unpleasant smells may be emitted and house prices could drop if they're near a factory
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What happens to the temperature in an Endothermic reaction?
Heat energy is taken in. More energy is needed to break the bonds in the reactants than is released in making bonds in the products. Heat energy is released.
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What happens to the temperature in an Exothermic reaction?
Less energy is needed to break the bonds in the reactants than is released in making bonds in the products. Heat energy is absorbed
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How does concentration affect the rate of reaction?
There are more particles in the same volume. The chances of them colliding is greater
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How does surface area affect the rate of reaction?
If a solid is broken up into pieces, there is a larger surface area. More particles are exposed to the other reactant and there are more collisions
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How does temperature affect the rate of reaction?
The particles collide more = more energy
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How does a catalyst affect the rate of reaction?
It speeds up the reaction without being used up
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What is a catalyst?
A substance that speeds up the rate of a reaction without being used up in the reaction
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What can catalysts be used for?
They increase the rate of production of products. The reaction can be done at a lower temperature than they would otherwise. Less energy is used, which saves money and energy resources
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What is the mass and charge of a neutron?

Back

1 and none

Card 3

Front

What is the mass and charge of an electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Which group is the alkali metals in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Which group are halogens in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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