GCSE REVISION CARDS PE

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How can age effect performance?
1. Very young children cannot cope with complex tasks, which can affect their ability to learn and practise. 2. Flexibility decreases with age. 3. Oxygen capacity and reaction time decrease as you get older. 4. Injury and disease becomes more common.
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What are the four forms of disability?
Mental, Physical, Permanent or Temporary.
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What are some differences between genders?
The body shapes, physiques and sizes tend to be different. Women tend to have smaller hearts and lungs. Women have up to 30% more body fat. Females have great levels of flexibility. On average, women also have two-thirds the strength as men.
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What is an ectomorph?
An ectomorph is someone who has narrow shoulders and hips. Tend to be tall and thin with a delicate build and are lightly muscled.
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What is a mesomorph?
A mesomorph is someone that has narrow hips but wide shoulders.They tend to have a muscular, athletic build with little body fat and are able to gain muscle relatively easily.
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What is an endomorph?
An endomorph is someone who has wide hips and shoulders. This type tends to have a rounded appearance, has trouble losing weight, but can gain muscle.
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What is fatigue? What can fatigue cause?
Fatigue is the feeling of extreme physical or mental tiredness brought on by exertion. It can cause a temporary loss in skill, speed and concentration levels will drop. The performer will be forced to stop.
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What is stress? What can stress result in?
Stress is the body's reaction to a change that requires a physical, mental or emotional adjustment or response. Stress can result in aggression; as long as this aggression is controlled in can contribute as a positive factor. Motivation can decrease.
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Define motivation.
Motivation is your drive to succeed and desire and energy to achieve something.
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What is an introvert and an extrovert?
An introvert is someone who is shy and reserved. An extrovert is someone who tends to be assertive, and seeks out excitement.
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What is a strain and a sprain?
Strain is the overstretching of a muscle. Sprain is the overstretching or tearing of ligaments at a joint.
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What is RICE?
Rest, Ice, Compression, Elevation.
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Equation for aerobic respiration.
Glucose + Oxygen ---> energy + carbon dioxide + water
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Equation for anaerobic respiration.
Glucose ---> energy + lactic acid
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What are the functions of the blood?
The blood transports oxygen, glucose and waste productions around the body. It also helps body temperature and protection.
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What is leisure?
It is your free time, where you choose what you what you want to do. It is not, working, sleeping, eating or maintaining good hygiene.
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Why is leisure industry increasing?
More people work shifts or part time. Unemployment is higher. Technological advancements mean that people have more time for leisure.
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Types of a freely movable joint.
Ball and socket, and hinge.
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What are the types of joint movement?
Adduction, Abduction, Rotation, Flexion, Extension
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What are the agonist and antagonist?
Agonist is the contracting muscle, antagonist is the relaxing muscle.
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Define strength.
The maximum force that can be developed within a muscle or muscle group during a single maximum contraction.
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Define speed.
It is the ability to move all or parts of your body as quickly as possible.
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Define stamina.
Stamina is often known as endurance. Two types of endurance: Cardiovascular and muscular.
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Define flexibility.
Is the range of movement available at a joint.
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Define balance.
Balance is the ability to retain the centre of mass of the body above the base of support
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Define co-ordination.
Is the ability to link all parts of a movement into one efficient smooth movement.
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Define Agility.
Combination of flexibility and speed.
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What is reaction time?
How quickly a performer can respond to something.
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What are the 7 nutrients?
water, carbohydrates, protein, vitamins, minerals, fats and fibre.
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Three types of vitamins.
Vit A- helps maintain healthy eyes, skin and bones. Vit C- lack of it can cause scurvy. Vit D- lack of it can cause rickets.
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What are the three consequences of dietary imbalances?
Obesity, eating disorders and diabetes.
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Four key categories of the Healthy Schools Programme.
PSHE, Healthy Eating, Physical Activity and Emotional Health and Wellbeing.
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What is the public sector of leisure?
It is usually provided by local councils. The costs tend to be low, the public sector only has to break even with expenditure. EXAMPLE: libraries.
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What is the private sector of leisure?
It is usually privately owned, often by clubs or individuals. Membership fees apply. They are businesses that are seeking to make a profit. EXAMPLE: gyms.
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Roles in sports.
player/performers, officials, organisers, coaches.
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Advantages of hosting international events.
Large financial profit, raising national/international profile and provision of brand-new or updated facilities.
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Disadvantages of hosting international events.
Security issues, threat of terrorism, possible boycotts and political intervention issues, and the high costs for the staging and security.
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An example of an Olympic Game disaster.
Munich 1972, these games were marred by an attack led by Palestinian terrorists against Israeli athletes. Hostages held. 11 of which were killed.
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What are the 5 competition formats?
Leagues, knockouts, ladders, round robins and combination events.
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Positive influences of the media.
Helps to attract sponsors, variety of content, information provision, educational uses, and revenue source.
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Negative influences of the media.
Media pressure, TV directors' influence, popularity, levels of support, undermining officials, altered event timing and intrusion.
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Types of sponsorship.
Money payments, equipment, clothing, accessories, transport and travel, training, entry fees and food.
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Name 2 acceptable sponsors and 2 unacceptable sponsors.
Good: O2, and clothing firms. Bad: cigarette brands, tobacco products.
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What is a role model?
Is a person whose behaviours, examples, or success is, or can be, copied by others- especially younger people.
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What should a performer do when lifting and carrying?
Bent knees, straight back, and object should be as close to the body as possible.
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What are the three main areas of technological advances?
Equipment, materials and facilities.
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What is hawk-eye?
A ball-tracking technology used in tennis and cricket, from August 2013 it was introduced as goal-line technology in football.
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What have the developments in technology done to equipment?
It has allowed man-made materials to replace natural materials. This generally makes the equipment lighter, stronger or more flexible. In racket sports, the rackets used to be made from wood but are now made from carbon-fibre.
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What has the change in technology done to materials?
It has made clothing lighter, allowing perspiration to disperse easily.
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What has technology advancements done to facilities?
Stadiums are now purpose-built, for example, for athletics, rugby or football. Attractable roofs are being added- like the centre court at Wimbledon.
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What is etiquette?
Etiquette is the unwritten rules to a game, they are not told, but they are just expected. Like, kicking the ball out of ply when one is injured in football, or shaking the opponents hand after a game.
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Define apartheid.
A policy of separating groups, especially because of race or colour.
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What is carbo-loading?
It is eating lots of carbohydrates in order to saturate the muscles in stored glucose which can be broken done into energy,
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Define reversibility.
The loss of positive effects if you stop training.
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What are intrinsic and extrinsic rewards?
Intrinsic is something that gives an individual an internal satisfaction. Extrinsic is something that is clearly visible to others and an be seen as an achievement.
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What is arousal?
The state of readiness of a performer.
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Card 2

Front

What are the four forms of disability?

Back

Mental, Physical, Permanent or Temporary.

Card 3

Front

What are some differences between genders?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is an ectomorph?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a mesomorph?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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