GCSE PE Paper 2

Arousal
Arousal is a physical and mental state of alertness varying from deep sleep to intense excitement.
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Inverted U Theory
As arousal increases, so does performance until it reaches optimal level, where if arousal increases further, performance will decrease.
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Arousal (skills)
Fine skills involving accuracy require a low optimal level of arousal. Gross skills involving power and large muscle movements require a high optimal level of arousal.
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Deep Breathing (physiological)
This involves the performer exaggerating their breaths in and out. The top of the body should be relaxed and slow. This calms nerves and focuses the mind on the task at hand.
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Mental Rehearsal/ Visualisation (psychological)
Mental rehearsal involves the performer picturing themselves performing the skill perfectly before attempting it. A performer can also be imagining themselves in a calm place.
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Positive Self-Talk (psychological)
Self-talk is a cognitive technique where the performer talks to themselves in their head. It reassures them that they are prepared and ecourages them to perform the skill well. It can reduce or increase arousal levels.
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Guidance
Having already performed or whilst learning how to perform a skill, performers need help from their coach or teacher in order to improve.
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Visual Guidance
Guidance that you can see, like a demonstration. This allows performers to see what they are expected to do. This is useful for both beginner and elite performers and could involve footage of a recent performance.
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Verbal Guidance
It is provided by another person speaking to you. They can say whether a skill is being performed correctly by highlighting the technique or a key trigger point. For beginners, this should be supplemented with visual guidance, and not too complex.
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Mechanical Guidance
This is using mechanical aids to assist a performer to produce the desired movement. Examples are a floats in swimming. This is useful for beginners as they feel safe and supported and allows them to know how it should feel.
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Manual Guidance
This is physically moving the performer through physical touch. This should be used for beginners so they know how it should feel, but not necessary for elite performers unless their are flaws in technique.
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Feedback
Feedback is information that a performer receives. It can come before, during or after performance in various forms.
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Positive Feedback
Used to inform the athlete what was correct about the movement - essential for beginners so they know that they are doing it correctly.
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Negative Feedback
Used to inform the athlete what was incorrect about the movement - used for elite performers and must include how to fix the problem.
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Knowledge of Results
Focusses on how successful you have been in achieving what you set out to do. This is obvious for elite performers but beginners need this type of feedback. An example is the score in a match.
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Knowledge of Performance
Provides more detail about how well you did irrespective of the result. It may relate to technique or specific aspects of a movement.
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Extrinsic Feedback
Information received about performace which comes from outside the performer. This can be given verbally or on a score card.
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Intrinsic Feedback
Information received from within the performer like how something feels and information from the senses or muscles.
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Types of Feedback for Beginners
Knowledge of results, extrinsic and positive feedback
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Types of Feedbcak for Elite Performers
Knowledge of performance, intrinsic and negative feedback
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Performance Goals
This involves comparing youself against what you have already done or what you are going to do. They do not compare themselves against others, and is therefore most suitable for beginners to avoid de-motivation.
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Outcome Goals
This is used to judge the end result and usually involves comparison with other competitors. This is more suitable for ellite performers because they are mostly driven by winning
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Example of Outcome Goal
Finish on the podium
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Example of Performance Goal
Try and perform a net shot
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SMART Targets
Specific, Meaurable, Accepted, Realistic, Time-bound
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Motivation
The drive to succeed or the desire to achieve something
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Intrinsic Motivation
Drive that comes from within the performer. (self-satisafction, enjoyment, improve ability, love of the activity)
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Extrinsic Motivation
Drive experienced by a performer when striving to achieve a reward (trophy, coach's approval, fans, money, national trials)
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Tangible Rewards
Certificates, trophies and money
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Intangible Rewards
Praise from a coach or applause from the crowd
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Information Processing
This is using available information in order to make a decision; this is choosing a suitable skill or movement.
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Information Processing - Input
Performer takes in information from the environment or display.
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Information Processing - Input Example
Sight when watching the netball coming twowards you.
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Information Processing - Selective Attention
This is a filtering process where they pick out the most important and relevant parts of the environment.
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Information Processing - Decision Making
Performer selects an appropriate response from memory. Information from the display is held in the STM (18-30). The LTM stores information that has been rehearsed. If a memory is relevant to what is needed at the time, it's used to make a decision.
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Information Processing - Decision Making Example
The netballer has attended to the ball in the air. She can recall the memory of a previous catch (LTM) and compare it to what she is currently seeing (STM) so the decision to catch can be made.
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Information Processing - Output
The decision shosen is sent to the appropriate muscles to carry out a response.
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Information Processing - Output Example
Impulses are sent to the arms of the netballer to start the appropriate muscular movements for the catch.
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Information Processing - Feedback
Information is received via themselves (intrinsic) and/or others (extrinsic) regarding the success of the action. The feedback received may affect how a skill is perfomed in the future.
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Information Processing - Feedback Example
She can feel the ball in her hands (intrinsic) or her team mates cheer (extrinsic)
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Introvert Personality
Tend to play individual sports, do not need others to motivate them and the sport often requires fine skills and low arousal levels.
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Extrovert Personality
Enjoy being with others, play team sports, prone to boredom, enjoy fast-paced activities and the sport often requires gross skills and high arousal levels.
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Skill
Learned action or behaviour with the intention of bringing about predetermined results with maximum certainty and minimum outaly of time and energy.
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Ability
Inherited from your parents, abilities are stable traits that determine an individual's potential to learn or aquire skills.
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Direct Aggression
This is where there is actual physical contact between performers to directly and deliberately inflict harm on their opponent.
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Direct Aggression Example
A high rugby tackle with force.
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Indirect Aggression
The aggressive act is taken out on an object to gain advantage over the opponent. The act is often within the rules of the sport and doesn't physcially harm the performer.
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Indirect Aggression Example
sailor cuts across an opponent's sailing line.
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Basic Skill
Few decisions affect the success of the movement. It can be learnt fairly quickly and taught as a beginner.
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Complex Skill
Lots of decisions must be amde in order to be successful. They tend to be taught after experiencing success in basic skills; it takes time to master.
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Open Skill
The environment is unstable and the way you do the skill is affected by people around you. You may decide to do the skill differently because of the environment.
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Closed Skill
The environment is stable, the way you do the skill is not affected by people around you. The skill is done the same way every time.
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Self-Paced Skill
The start of the movement and the speed of the movement is controlled by the performer.
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Externally-Paced Skill
The start of the movement and the speed of the movement is controlled by external factors.
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Gross Skill
This involves big movements of the body and use of large muscle groups. The movements tend not to rely on accuracy or precision.
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Fine Skill
This involves small, precise movements and use of small muscle groups. The movements tend to involve precision and accuracy.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

As arousal increases, so does performance until it reaches optimal level, where if arousal increases further, performance will decrease.

Back

Inverted U Theory

Card 3

Front

Fine skills involving accuracy require a low optimal level of arousal. Gross skills involving power and large muscle movements require a high optimal level of arousal.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This involves the performer exaggerating their breaths in and out. The top of the body should be relaxed and slow. This calms nerves and focuses the mind on the task at hand.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Mental rehearsal involves the performer picturing themselves performing the skill perfectly before attempting it. A performer can also be imagining themselves in a calm place.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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