GCSE History- American West

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  • Created on: 12-04-16 17:16
What was the land like on the Great Plains?
Grasslands, rivers, hills to the North
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What was the climate like on the Great Plains?
Strong winds-brought cold in winter. Very hot in summer, drying up rivers
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What was the vegetation like on the Great Plains?
Mostly grass, some wood near rivers.
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What was the wildlife like on the Great Plains?
Herds of buffalo (Bison)
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Why did Native Americans move to the Great Plains?
Sioux had horses-let them travel across plains. Sioux faced threat of attack from other indians. Settlers brought disease, eg measles. Plains were empty but full of buffalo
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What did men do in Indian tribes?
Responsible for hunting, caring for horses, protecting the band. They were judged on skills as hunters, warriors and horsemen.
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What did women do in Indian tribes?
Responsible for the tipi, preparing food, fetching water and making clothing. Judges on skill of crafting and homemaking. Women were highly valued.
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What were marriages like for Indians?
Some had arranged marriages, if a husband was killed, wife married again, young men had to impress young women with bravery. Most men had several wives and lived with thier wives and families.
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What did old people do in the tribe?
Gave advice to the council, passed on their history. Helped to bring up children. When they were too old and weak to keep up, they were left behind.
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What were the cultures and traditions in tribes?
If Indians did wrong, they were shamed or humiliated in front of band. In extreme cases (murder for example) the wrongdoer was banished as murder damaged the whole band.
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Explain what the chiefs and councils did in tribes.
Became cheif due to wisdom, spiritual power,skills as a warrior and hunter.important decisions went to council, all men discussed. Chiefs and elders respected everyone, didn't tell them what to do. Council talked until all agreed.
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What did the Indians believe smoking the ceremonial pipe did?
Thought the smoke would inform the spirit world on their decisons.
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What did tribes think of children?
Highly valued- future. Didn't go to school but learned skills needed. Boys-hunt using bow and arrows. Girls-maintain home. Children had to learn to survive on plains. Never punished- worst punishment threw cold water over them.
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What was the warrior society?
Men in each band belonged to a warrior society, eg kit foxes of the Sioux. Responsible for supervising hunting, travelling and protect village. Opinions always important when decisons were being made.
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How many times did a tribe hunt buffalo per year?
2 or 3 per year was enough to feed, clothe and shelter a tribe. Anything leftover was sliced, dried and used as jerky.
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How many buffalo were on the Great Plains at the time?
Around 60 million, they were central to the way of life and culture.
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What did tribes do before hunting?
The buffalo dance- would wear buffalo and do buffalo movements- asked spirit world for help. Could last for hours
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What are the two ways that tribes hunted buffalo?
1) dressed like wolves and crawled to the buffalo then would jump and shoot them. 2) used horses, would start a stampede, chase them and fire arrows.
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Name five part of a buffalo and what they were used for.
Tongue-hair brush. Fat-soap. Tanned hide- tipi covers. Bones-knives. Hooves-glue or tools.
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Why was a tipi ideal for the plains Indians?
They can be taken down in 10 minutes, which was ideal for the Indians as they were always on the move. Also, two tipi poles attached to a gorse formed a travois that carried their belongings.
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Who owned the tipis?
Women owned the tipis, they moved it, took it down and lived in it. They also kept it if they got divorced.
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Why was the tipi good for summer and winter?
Summer-tipi bottom roller up to keep it cool. Winter- earth banked at the bottom of the tipi to keep the air warm.
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How did the tipi solve some of the problems on the plains? What were the problems?
Lack of wood-tipis do not need a lot of wood-just for poles. Strong winds- shape(cone) kept it steady and stable.
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What was the name of the Sioux God? What did they believe about spirits?
Wakantanka(the great spirit). Believed all living things had spirits. Even rocks, trees streams etc. Belived spirits could influence their lives.
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Why were circles important to the Sioux?
Believed in the circle of nature. Surrounded by circle of horizon, village, councils, tipi and sheild. Looked up at the circular sun and moon. Cirlce of birth, childhood, adulthood, old age, second childhood and death.
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What was the Sioux attitude to the land?
Believed they came from earth, like plants and animals. Believed land couldn't be owned, called land their mother. High land more sacred-closer to spirits. Black hill was where dead were buried. Also where holy men went to seek guidence.
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What two ways did the Sioux use to contact spirits?
1-visions(interpreted by medicine men then adult name would be given) 2-dances and ceremonies-used when all trive wanted tk contact spirits, eg before hunting, after war and the sun dance for guidance.
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What is manifest destiny?
The belief that the United States was destined to stretch from coast to coast.
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What was warfare like for plains Indians?
Didn't fight over land. Sacrified people to take their spirits. Used coup stick and bow and arrow. Tendons=bow string. Bones=knives.horns=arrows.raw hide=shields.
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What was religion like on the great plains?
Skulls painted and used in rituals. Believed everything had a spirit. Land was their mother. Believed in spirits and that great plains belonged to spirits.
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How did the buffalo help life on the plains?
All of buffalo used- nothing wasted. Started byffalo stampede with horses when hunting.Took heart out and left it on plains.fat used for soap.
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How did the plains Indians survive on the plains?
Used buffalo for materials. Used tipi for shelter. Left elders or babies behind. Performed rituals.travois stcks-move things around.
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What are geographical features of the plains?
Great plains in USA. Middle of America. In between Rocky and Appalachien mountains.
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Why were people 'pushed West'?
1837-economic depression,east- people lost savings, wages cut. Midwest-price of wheat and corn collapsed, badly affected farmers. Overpopulation.
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Why were people 'pulled' west?
Lots of land in West. Government offered land for low price if a farmer built a house, cleared trees. Stories about West being good- some missionaries that wanted help converting Indians, others hoping to make money from settlers.
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What dangers did people face travelling west?
Rocky terrain-wagon wheels could break.stampeding buffalo. Extreme weather(rain,thunderstorms, extreme heat). Sandstorms. Salty water holes.
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Who were mountain men?
Early 1800's, fur fashion, great demand for animal fur. Men employed to trap beavers and others animals for their fur. Some mountain men accepted by Indians-has indian wives. 1940-fur not fashionable, men were guides for those traveling west.
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What happened to the Donner Party?
Left independence in May, not April. Had more women, children and elderly.Didn't have all skills required.used a short cut-never been used.group split. One man killed another. Reached Sierra Nevada little food.Snow came early(October).
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Why was the Donner Party a disaster?
Animals died, food dwindled. Didn't have hunting skills.small group (15) tried to walk to California-food ran out.Four men froze to death, compainions ate them, packed leftovers for future meals.indian guides wouldn't eat humans-shot and eaten.
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Give a summary of the discovery of gold.
Gold, discovered 1848 in California by James Marshall. Immigrants racially abused, those who tried to defend them were beaten up too-no police. Many that travelled disappointed as there wasn't much gold left. mining towns-no law- vigilantes instead.
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Why were the mormons so unpopular in the east?
1-Joseph Smith claimed to be prophet-said mormons were god's chosen people..2-Smith set up bank-bank collapsed.3-mormons against slavery.4-for polygamy.5-friends with Indians.6-in kirtland, mormons outnumbered non-mormons.7-mormons successful-jealous
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Who was the first Mormon leader?
Jospeh Smith.
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What were Joseph Smith's strengths and achievements?
Set up own religion (1823),against slavery, became very successful,friends with Indians,charismatic public speaker, thoudsands of followers. Ohio-sucessful and prosperous. Missouri-farmed land,became prosperous. Illinois-rebuilt commerce, prosperous.
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What were Joseph Smith's weaknesses and failures?
Kept moving,took a while to settle,for polygamy, friends with Indians.ohio-bank collapsed, non-mormons jealous.missouri-put smith in prison.Illinois-Smith killed in prison,mormons had to leave
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Who was the Mormon's second leader?
Brigham Young.
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What were Brigham Young's strengths and achievements?
Divided mormons into small groups-easier to travel. Settled at great salt lake (Utah)1847, nobody there and under Mexican rule.had control of community.land divided out.dug irrigation ditches. Made settlements across Utah,loans to get to Utah.
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What were Brigham Youngs weaknesses and failures?
People doubted decison to settle in utah. Salt lake seen as barren, no forests.many died of hunger and cold. Couldn't drink the water. 1848- Utah part of US not mexico.
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How did the Morman's organise cities?
Temple in the centre of the city, then 5 acre plots for those who had little time to work on land, e.g. Mechanics. After this, 10 acre plots for small families or elderly couples. Finally, farms between 10-80 acres for larger families.
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What were the Morman's steps to independence?
1-Young applied to US gment to have land around salt lake as a state called deseret-they said no, had to be called Utah after Ute Indians. Young first governor of state. agreed to let Mormons live own lives-had to stop polygamy to be a state.
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Describe the homesteaders problems and solutions when ploughing land.
P-land had to be plowed before crops grow, soil never plowed before as Indians didn't plow it. Thick rotts, grass up to 10cm S-1830, John Deete made steel plough called 'sodbuster'.Homesteadersbused sodbuster. Steel stronger than the iron used before
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Describe the homesteaders problems and solutions for lack of water.
P-rainfall 38cm a year. Rain fell in summer-evaporated. No water for crops, no lakes or rivers.diggin a well expensive, often no water. S-dry farming.1874 Daniel Halliday perfected wind pump tech, windmill built above well, constant water supply.
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Describe the homesteaders problems and solutions when crops were trampled.
P-needed to mark claims to protect from other homesteaders.cattle amd buffalo trample crops. Lack of trees-no fence. S-1874,Joseph Gidden invented barbed wire-cheap, simple.able to mark boundary. Caused conflict-cut cattle from water supply.
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Describe the homesteaders problems and solutions for extreme weather.
P-big temp variation.long winters, cold temp,snow.very hot summer.hard to grow crops.dust storms, tornadoes and hurricanes. S-no solution.
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What were driving forces to go West?
Homestead Act (1862. Desert land act (1877). Timber and Culture Act (1873). Public domain land.The Railroads.
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What are the positives and negatives of the Homestead Act? What year was the Act?
Homestead Act 1862-P-inexpensive land,settlers could claim 1/4 section of land.N-act had to be changed to support families.
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What are the positives of the Desert land act?What year was the Act?
Desert Land Act 1877. P-settlers had right to buy 640 acres of land cheaply in areas where lack of rainfall was a problem.
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What are the positives and negatives of the Timber and Culture Act?What year was the Act?
Timber and culture act-1873 P-allowed homesteaders to claim further 160 acres if they planted trees on half of it. N-160 acres not enough to support a homesteader family.
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What are the positives and negatives of Public Domain Land?
P-Us gov made sure all land had owner.9.6kmsquared townships divided into 640 acre sections for $1 per acre.N-land belonged to noone. Speculators bought land and sold it for more money. $1 per acre too expensive for normal settlers.
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What are the positives and negatives of the railroads?
P-people could travel west quicker. First railroad completed 1869.N-railways built across plains indians land. 6 companies owned 155 million acres of land on plains-had to sell land to finance more railroad building.
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What are the names of the two railway companies?
Union Pacific railway company and Central Pacific railway company.
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Where did homesteaders live? Describe aspects of the house.
A sodhouse. Roof-made of grassy sods, up to 40cm thick. Hay burning stove. Dirt floor- often whitewashed to deter insects.walls-usually two sods thick to provide better insulation. Hand operated sewing machine.
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What are advantages and disadvantages of sodhouses?
Adv-very cheap to build. Not a lot of resources required to build them. Disadv-unable to keep it clean. Very smelly.
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List some of the jobs done by women homesteaders.
Teacher, developed community, cleaning, cooking, looking after children,collect dung for fire,keep family warm and healthy,made clothes,doctors, some farmed.
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What does a bandanna show about cowboys?
Used as a mask to protect from dust. Shows it was a dusty environment.
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What does a saddle show about cowboys?
Saddle grew to fit owners body- cowbys would gamble anything except saddle.Shows that they rode horses a lot.
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What do heeled boots show about cowboys?
Heel and arch were constructed so that foot and leg were comfortable at all times.Spurs worn at all times(spurs made horses go faster).Shows they rode horses a lot.
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What do chaps show about cowboys?
Chaps are an overgarment like a pair of trousers with a cut out seat made of bear skin. Withstood thorns and wind. Protected legs from chafing during long ride.Shows a lot of time is spent outside.
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What does a lariat show about cowboys?
AKA lasso, used to catch cattle. They must be skilled to be able to use it well.
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What does a stetson(hat) show about cowboys?
Made of felt. Brim protected from sun and an umbrella for rainy weather.In winter was pulled over ears and tied to protect from frostbite. Shows there were harsh conditions.
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What was life for cowboys like?
Very isolated, boring life. Hollywood films made their lives more dramatic. Cowboys were both black and white. They also went to saloons.
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How did the cattle industry establish trails?
Cattlemen knew growing cities in north would pay $40 per cow.Rounded cattle and hired cowboys and organised drives north.New railroads helped move cattle easily to mid-west towns. Cattle taken East on railroads to St Louis and North to Chicago.
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What were problems with the trails set up by the cattlemen?
Rustlers kill to get longhorn cow. Goodnight-Loving trail avoided hostile mobs and Indians; lacked water and far from profitable markets deadly tick carried by longhorns could infect the cattle.Hostile Indians problem.Oliver Loving killed by them.
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Describe the boom of the cattle industry.
1)As railroads developed, new cow towns established.2)New trails connected railroads and towns.3)Successful beef bonanza.4)Profit-$5 in Texas, $50 in cow towns.5)All involved prosperous.
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Why did cattle drives end?
1)Homesteaders blocked trails with farm.2)1868 Fort Laramie treaty-Indians charged cowboys to cross land.3)Cowboys thought it was easier to raise cattle on plains.4)John Iliff made cattle business on Plains.
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Describe openranges.
1)Ranches were open ranges.2)Bunkhouses +living quarters for cowboys in centre.3)Unfenced land, claimed not owned.4)1880-85 peak ranching years.5)Range rights -right to water holes for cattle.6)Cattle roamed freely, cows branded.
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Describe the bust of the cattle industry.
1)Overstocking-more cows on plains, put pressure on grass,drought 1883.2)Beef readily available,prices lowered-1882 profits fell.3)Cold winter 1885-15% herds perished.4)Cowboys and cattlemen bankrupt.
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What was ranching like after the cattle industry?
1)Smaller herds, higher meat quality.2)Fenced off land with barbed wire-conflict with homesteaders.3)Wind pumps=water anywhere on ranch.4)Portable wind pumps invented-don't need to travel for water.5)Ranches more sustainable.
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Describe the impact Charles Goodnight and Oliver Loving had on the cattle industry.
1)Herd increased to 8000.2)Hired 18 cowboys to take 2000 cows to 7000 starving Indians.3)Lack of water almost ruined expedition-all suffered many animals died.4)At fort summer, had 1700 cattle left to sell-fed Indians and US troops at fort.
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Describe the impact of Joseph McCoy on the cattle industry.
1)Cattle on train taken East.2)Set up first cow town Abilene on Kansas Pacific railroad.3)1867-37000 cattle along Chisholm trail.4)Between 1867-81, 1.5 million cattle through Abilene.
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Describe the impact of John Iliff on the cattle industry.
1)Enlarge herd-bought Loving's cows.2)Produced cows with sweeter meat than longhorns.3)Contract to supply Union Pacific railroad construction with meat.4)Beef East by rail using refrigerated rail cars-slaughtered before transported.Continued...
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John Iliff continued...
5)1872, contract to supply Red Cloud and 7000 Sioux Indians with meat.6)Many copied Iliff, ranching on Plains begun.
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Explain why the rail roads benefited the West.
1)Access through different terrain.2)Transport lots of people,food,resources-brings jobs and migrants.3)Land cheap-encouraged people to move West(go by train).4)United communities together.
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Explain why the railroads did not benefit the West.
1)Split buffalo herds.2)Brings migrants-prejudice and discrimination.3)Not highly paid jobs.4)Taking/cutting up Indian land.5)Destroying Indian way of life.5)Government wiped out buffalo-borderline extinction-to wipe out Indians.
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How did the railroads help to develop trade links with the far East?
Trade links with China and Japan made from ports in Oregon and California-railways transferred goods to ports.
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What year were the railroad companies set up?What were they called?
1)1862.2)Union Pacific Railway Company and Central Pacific Railway Company.
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What did the US government do to encourage companies to build tracks?
Offered free land.
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What are the four problems that the railway companies caused when building railways?
1)Land.2)Living and Working conditions.3)Labour shortages.4)Indians.
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Explain how land was a problem when building railways.
Railroads had to cross difficult terrain.
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Explain how living and working conditions were a problem when building railways.
1)Labourers lived and worked in squalid conditions-rain hail, snow,gales.2)Depended on foot transported 100's of km without refrigeration.
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Explain how labour shortages were a problem when building railways.
100,000 additional workers brought in from China, and Ireland.
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Explain how Indians were a problem when building railways.
Harassed railroad builders, afraid that hunting ground would be taken away.
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Between which years did the amount of rail track increase and by how much?
1)1850-1890.2)From 20,000km to 324,000km-increased by 304,000km.
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What three materials that were in short supply were needed to build railways?
Steel,iron and timber- led to growth in industries that supplied railways with materials.
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How did railroads help to enforce law and order?
Government officials and law enforcement officers could travel coast to coast easily-bring all Americans under same federal laws.
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What are three advantages of the railroads for the people in the West?
1)Lot of jobs created.2)Brought furniture,clothes,pans,fabrics,oil lamps to homes on plains.3)New markets opened up.
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What five factors are the reasons why there was lawlessness and violence in the West?
1)Geographical factors.2)Economic factors.3)Values and attitudes.4)Political factors.5)Social factors.
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Explain the geographical factor.
West was vast area, transport slow-made it difficult to enforce law and order.
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Explain the economic factor.
Many sources fo conflict were between different economic groups(cowboys and townspeople,homesteaders and ranchers,miners and hunters)>
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Explain the values and attitudes factor.
Your responsibility to settle things for yourself, no duty to retreat during confrontation.Most men carried guns-shooting in self defence was legal if other man had a gun.
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Explain the political factor.
Cow towns and mining towns lawless in early years-shortage of law enforcement officers, politicians didn't think issue was important enough to spend money on.
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Explain the social factors.
Lots of conflict and racism (Blacks,Chinese,Indians,Europeans,Mexicans and settlers).After civil war 1861-85, 1000's soldiers demobilised and readjusting to civilisation and life was difficult,people weren't willing to forgive.
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List the different types of crime.
Bank robbery,cattle rustling,claim jumping,fence cutting,horse stealing,murder,racial attacks,trail robbery, train robbery.
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Which roles of law and order were appointed?
US marshals and Judges.
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Describe the role of US marshals.
Oversaw law and order in state or territory- most important law men.
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Describe the role of judges.
Appointed by president to hear cases and pass sentences. Three to supervise each state or territory.
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Which roles of law and order were elected?
Tows marshals and their deputies. Sheriffs.
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Describe the role of town marshals and their deputies.
Appointed by people of town, usually every year. Main job to maintain law and order-difficult in mining and cow towns.
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Describe the role of Sheriffs.
Elected by people of county for 2 years.Responsible for county jail and selling property of anyone who failed to pay local taxes.
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What were two other groups that played a part in law and order?
The Pinkerton Detective Agency and The Texas Rangers.
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Describe the role of the Pinkerton Detective Agency.
Private company, set up 1850 by Allan Pinkerton. Called 'Pinkertonians' hired by railroad and stagecoach companies to protect and hunt down outlaws.
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Describe the role of The Texas Rangers.
Set up 1820 to enforce law in Texas(part of Mexico at time).Well known for fighting Indians, fought in Mexican and American war.Mounted police force,never wore uniform.Arizona also had ranger force.
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Name two law breakers.
Jesse James and Billy the Kid.
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Describe the life of Jesse James.
1847-born.Joined gang(Quantril raiders) murdered ant-confederates.1863-gang attacked town of Lawrence,killed 150 people and set fire to 180 buildings.Tried to rob national bank in Minnesota-he killed cashier, towns people fought back-killed 3 of gang
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Jesse James Continued..
Jesse and brother Frank escaped from bank and went into hiding. Changed name to JD Howard,set up new gang-raided and killed in Missouri. 1882-died as Robert Ford(member of gang) shot him for $10,000-Ford pardoned for James' death.
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Describe the life of Billy the Kid.
1859-born.1975-life of crime started.1877-killed Frank Cahill(army blacksmith)Joined the regulators-killed Sheriff William Brady.1878-gave self up, escaped from custody formed gang.1880-Bill captured-killed 2 guards and escaped.1881-died-shoot out.
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Who were two law makers?
Wyatt Earp and William Tilghman.
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Describe the life of Wyatt Earp.
1848-born in Illinois.1870-Constable of Lamar,Missouri. Later sacked for horse theft but escaped-hunted buffalo in Kansas and became lawman in Witchita.1876-Saked for fighting with officers,then deputy Marshal in dodge city.
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Describe the life of William Tilghman.
1954-born fort dodge,Iowa.1869-animal hunter, claimed to killed 12000 buffalo-angered local Indians.1872-Killed 7 Cheyenne braves Indians.1878-Deputy Sheriff then later Marshal of Dodge city.1889-Deputy US Marshal.
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What were the causes of the Johnson County War?
1)Homesteaders took over bankrupt ranchers land-fenced it off around water holes.Community divided into hostile groups.2)Jim Averill and Ella Watson=owners of saloon, Ella given rustled cattle.3)Albert Bothwell suspected Ella of stealing his cattle.
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What were the consequences of the Johnson County War?
1)1889 Albert and friends hanged Jim and Ella.2)Wyoming Stock Growers Association hired gang regulators to shoot trouble makers.3)Small ranch owners set up Northern Wyoming farmers and stock growing association.4)More killings and murders.Continued..
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Johnson County War Consequences continued.
5)Wyoming Stock growers- list of 70 potential rustlers-Governor of county aware.6)Hired 22 gunmen $5 a day, $50 a death.6)Planned to capture buffalo kill sheriff and men on list.7)Sheriff 300 men army-fought until 6th Cavalry came to KC ranch.
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Describe the viscous circle.
1)Indians sign peace treaty.2)Settlers break treaty.3)Indians attack settlers.4)Army called in to defend settlers.5)Army defeat Indians.6)Cycle starts again.
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What was the 'permanent Indian frontier'?
Meant all Indians located to west of 95th Meridian(on the plains).In west, Indians free to roam and hunt.
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What year was the medicine creek treaty?
1867.
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What year was the first Fort Laramie treaty?
1851.
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Describe the First Fort Laramie treaty.
Agreement between Thomas Fitzpatrick(government agent)and Cheyenne Indians.Government gave Indians land in exchange to allow them to build roads and military posts.Government promised to pay $50,000 a year for 10 years.
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What year was the second Fort Laramie Treaty?
1868.
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What year was the Fort Wise treaty?
1861.
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Describe the Fort Wise treaty.
1859-gold in Rockies.Men cut through Indian land to get there.Railway wanted to build on Indian land.Cheyenne attacked travellers-treaty made,given less land.
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Name 3 wars between Indians and the US army.
Little Crow's War, Sand Creek Massacre and Red Cloud's War.
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What year was Little Crow's War?
1861-62.
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What were the causes of Little Crow's War?
1)Government broke treaty-didn't give money.2)Led to starvation-poor crops,appalling land.3)1862-Dakota demanded money from Thomas J Gailbrath-refused so Dakota became angry.
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What were the key events of Little Crow's War?
1)August 1862-4 Dakota killed 5 American settlers.2)Dakota decide to attack settlements on Minnesota river.3)Dakota fought settlers then army.4)Indians lost-40,000 settlers left-700 dead.5)Lasted one month.
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What were the consequences of Little Crow's War?
1)Over 1000 Indians jailed in Minnesota.2)38 Dakota hanged.3)1863 Dakota expelled from Minnesota.4)Forced to live on smaller plains in Missouri.5)Situation worse.5)Sitting Bull visited-was appalled and hated whites more.
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What year was Sand Creek Massacre?
1864.
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What were the causes of Sand Creek Massacre?
1)Cheyenne at Sand Creek-led by Black Kettle-had US flag on reservation.2)Land barren-Cheyenne starving.3)1863-no buffalo so attacked wagon trails and stole food-nobody hurt.
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What were the key events of the Sand Creek Massacre?
1)Nov 29th 1864 Colonel Chivington attacked camp.2)105 women and children killed and 28 warriors.3)Whites in East appalled by Chivington-demanded action against him;he was never punished properly.
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What were the consequences of the Sand Creek Massacre?
1)Those hunting could never forgive white men.2)Men joined dog soldiers.3)100's settlers and travellers killed by dog soldiers.4)Sand Creek Massacre contributed to events leading to Battle of Little Big Horn.
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What year was Red Cloud's War?
1865-1868.
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What were the causes of Red Cloud's War?
1)1862-miners rushed to Rockies for gold-crossed Indian land instead of Bozeman trail.2)Government didn't stop miners.3)Sioux attacked travellers -trail became dangerous.
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What were the key events of Red Cloud's War?
1)1866-government tried to talk and prevent attacks.2)Simultaneously ordered fort building along Bozeman trail.3)Red Cloud stopped talks-attacked forts.4)1867-government abandoned forts-Plains Indians burned them down-army humiliated.
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What were the consequences of Red Cloud's War?
1)Army overpowered Sioux-new Fort Laramie treaty agrees (1868).2)Great Sioux reservation set up-Black Hills and Big Horn Mountains.3)Army realised they would have to change tactics to solve Indian problems.
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What year was the Battle of Little Big Horn?
1876.
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What were the key events of the Battle of Little Big Horn/
1)Custer and 7th cavalry ordered by Colonel Gibbon to locate and attack Indian camp.2)25th June 1876 Custer's Indian scouts spotted biggest ever Indian camp-appeared to just be women and kids.3)600 men and 2 officers(major Reno and Benteen).....
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Key events continued 1..
Split into 3 to surround camp-Benteen and 3 companies went West, Reno and 3 companies went South,Custer and 5 companies went North.4)Reno stopped by Lakota warriors-Benteen went to help-kept there by Indians.5)Custer met by 5000 warriors on horses...
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Key events continued 2....
6)Cheyenne warriors fired Winchester rifles.Custer's men fought to end.Lasted half an hour.7)26th June, Indians withdrew-Sitting Bull's vision was true.27th All 225 of Custer's men found disfigured and scalped.Custer shot head+heart not scalped.
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How did railways destroy the Indian way of life?
1)Scared buffalo away.2)brought homesteaders-less land and resources.3)Soldiers get to plains faster.4)Tourists killed buffalo,accommodation built.5)Army protected builders.6)Cowboys took up more room.7)Businesses more successful.
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How did the army destroy the Indians way of life?
1)More equipped with Indians.2)forts.3)Destroyed Indians belongings.4)More advanced weapons.5)Spies.6)More control.7)Destroyed food-Indians could starve or go on Plains.8)Fought Indians in winter.
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What are economic reasons why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
The destruction of the buffalo.
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Describe the destruction of the buffalo.
1)Took away vital support for Indians way of life.2)Without buffalo they couldn't exist on plains.
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What are political reasons why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
1)Manifest destiny.2)Homesteading.3)Reservations.
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Describe manifest destiny.
1)Americans should occupy the whole continent.2)Indians were in the way.
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Describe homesteading.
1)Homesteaders fenced off land that buffalo grazed on and Indians lived.2)When there was trouble, homesteaders wanted Indians to be moved to reservations.
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Describe reservations.
1)Kept Indians under control,destroyed culture.2)Government took away horses and weapons, making Indians dependent on hand outs-taken away for 'bad behaviour'.
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Where are military reasons why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
1)US army.2)Division between Indian nations.3)Indians weapons and tactics.
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Describe the US army.
1)Huge manpower- too strong for Indians.2)Forts gave army control-winter campaign(fight in winter) decisive in military victory.
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Describe the division between Indian nations.
1)Plains Indians couldn't unite to fight army.2)Some Indians,e.g.crow, fought with army against traditional enemies(Sioux).
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Describe Indians weapons and tactics.
1)Indians used to small raids.2)Unwilling to suffer losses and unable to replace them-less armed than US army.
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What are political and economic factors why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
Cattle ranching.
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Describe cattle ranching.
1)Ranchers cattle grazed on land where buffalo grazed and where Indians lived.2)Wanted Plains Indians on reservations.
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What are economic and military reasons why the Indians lost control of the Plains.
Plains Indians Society.
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Describe Plains Indians society.
1)Indians never able to fight long campaign against army.2)Had families to feed and protect-way of life depended on them roaming in small groups.
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What are political and military reasons why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
US government policy.
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Describe the US government policy.
1)Government usually supported miners, homesteaders and ranchers over Indians.2)Government sent in army when conflict occurred to deal with 'Indian problem'.
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What are economic military and political factors why the Indians lost control of the Plains?
1)End of civil war.2)gold.3)railroads.
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Describe the end of the civil war.
1)After war, government concentraated on work.2)Money available, built railroads.Encouraged freed slaves,ex-soldiers to settle and start new life.
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Describe gold.
1)Miners on Black Hills 1874-broke Fort Laramie treaty.2)Government sent in army to protect miners instead of removing them.
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Describe railroads.
1)Railroads opened up to homesteaders, ranchers an buffalo hunters.2)Railroads allowed people to travel west and supplied forts, moved soldiers quickly.
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How did the government take away chiefs powers?
Set up councils that took over chiefs' powers to judge and punish Indians.
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How did the courts change in 1885?
Court that allowed councils to judge and punish Indians abolished-US law kept law ad order among Indians.
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Describe schools for Indian children.
Military style conditions.Children punished if they spoke own language.Taught to have no respect for Indian way of life.
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How many Indians in school in 1887?
2020 Indian children at 117 boarding schools and 2500 in 110 day schools.
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How did Indians lose their skills?
Had to plough,sew and reap but could only hunt and fight.
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What aspects of the Indian's religion was taken away?
Indian feasts,dances and ceremonies were banished.
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What was the role of government agents?
Supposed to look after interests of reservations but many were corrupt.
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What was the Indian agency police?
Police force of Indians that were looked after and had reasonable quality of life.
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How was the railroads to blame on the reduction of the buffalo?
1)Brought tourists who shot buffalo.2)Hunters employed to kill buffalo and give builders fresh meat.3)Railroad companies hired hunters to clear track of buffalo.
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How was the industry to blame on the reduction of the buffalo?
1)Tannery invented-high grade leather made from buffalo hide.2)Hunters focussed on southern herd(industry based in Dodge city and fort worth).3)1883 northern buffalo herd exterminated.
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Who was behind the slaughter of the buffalo?
1)US government-wouldn't let Indians hunt buffalo.2)Indians-used to kill buffalo.3)Hunters-employed to kill them so Indians easier to control.4)Greed.
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What is the background of Wounded Knee?
1)End of 1880's atmosphere on reservations full of despair.2)Heightened by government-cut in Sioux rations in summer 1890.
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What was the ghost dance?
1)Indian had vision telling him all Indians had to dance.2)Great spirit would return all dead Indians,buffalo return and make whites go away.3)Indian agents worried as dance spread.4)Pres. Harrison ordered Indians to be controlled.5)Sitting Bull shot
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What year did Wounded Knee occur?
29th December 1890.
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Describe Wounded Knee.
1)Sitting Bull's followers joined Big Foot.2)Army sent to arrest Big Foot-fled with 350 Indians.3)Dec harsh,7th cavalry caught up with them.4)Indians taken to Wounded Knee Creek-most weapons taken.5)Some danced-shot fired and cavalry open fired.
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Wounded Knee continued.
6)Over in 10 minutes.7)250 Indians and 25 soldiers died.8)Struggle for Plains over.
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