GCSE GEOGRAPHY - CASE STUDIES U1 RESTLESS EARTH

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  • Created by: Ratch
  • Created on: 23-05-16 13:57
ABOUT...
location: central europe. formed by the collision of the African and European Plates. The highest peak is MT Blanc at 4810m ASL
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What are the Alps used for?
Farming, tourism, generating HEP, mining and forestry.
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FARMING
Uses the steep upland areas to farm goats for milk and cheese. Some of the sunnier slopes are terraced for vineyards
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TOURISM
100million tourists visit per yeat, 70% visit to ski and go walking and mountain biking. New villages are built to cater for tourists and there are all the amenities all over the slopes - ski lifts,ski runs,cable cars,chalets and restaurants,
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GENERATING HEP
Narrow valleys dammed to generate HEP. Switz get 60% of the electricity. Things that are produced locally can be exported.
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MINING
Mining for SALT, IRON ORE, GOLD, COPPER, SILVER and COPPER. but business decreased as its cheaper abroard
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FORESTRY
Scotts Pine is more resillient to goats munching which kill more native tree saplings
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How have people adapted?
STEEP RELIEF: goats are farmed which are adapted to live on the steep mountains and trees and man made defences protect against avalanches. POOR SOILS: animals are grazed in high areads where the soils arent good enough.
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How have people adapted?
roads used to be built on over passes but they were blocked by snow so now got tunnels through the mountains therefore fast transport.
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VOLCANIC ERRUPTION - MONSERRAT
June 25th 1997
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CAUSES
atlantic plate and carribean plate at destructive plate boundary. Magma rose through weak points forming a pool of magma. The rock above the pool collapsed opening a vent
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PRIMARY EFFECTS:
Large areas covered with volcanic material - plymouth buried under 12m mud. 2/3rds of homes destoyed (20 villages). Pyroclastic flows, vegetation and farmland destroyed. 19 people died and 7 injured. schools airports hospitals and port destroyed
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SECONDARY EFFECTS
Fires destoyed many buildings, tourists stayed away - businesses destroyed, population decline 8000/12000 left. volcanic ash improved fertility of soil, tourism is now increasing.
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IMMEDIATE RESPONSES
people evacuated - south to north, shelters built for evacuees, temporary infastructure, UK provided £17mill of aid, local emergency services provided support and search and rescue teams
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LONG TERM RESPONSES
A risk map with exclusion zone created, UK provided £41 mill to develop noth island, Monserrat volcano observertory created to predict earthquakes.
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INFO
Over past 3 mil years its erupted 3 times. The last time being 630000 years ago - 1000x bigger than MT ST helens. 45MILESX34MILES
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CHARACTERISTICS
FLAT - normal volcanoes are mountains, LARGE AREA - bigger than normal, CALDERA PRESENT - normal has a crater at the top.
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LIKELY EFFECTS FOR 100MILE RADIUS
Roofs of houses collapsing, 40000 people at risk, material ejected 80000ft into air, pyroclastic flow 50-100miles which means there will be no food from natural resources.
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LIKELY EFFECTS ON THE WHOLE OF THE US
temperature decreses by 5 degrees, governments moeny spent restoring and reinhabiting people and a volcanic winter for 6 years
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OVERALL
000's km^3 of rock,ask, lava. Ash clouds form - buring and burying everything around. and fields and building could get buried by 30cm
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KOBE EARTHQUAKE IN MEDC
17th JAN 1995 @ 5.46am. Took place in Kobe - south Japan. 7.3 magnitude and between the Eurasian and Philippine plate - destructive plate boundary
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PRIMARY EFFECTS
Hanshin expressway collapsed, gas pipes and water mains ruptured, trees and buildings fell down, supplied od energy disrupted, 200000 buildings collapsed, 6500 people died,250000 telephone lines collapsed
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SECONDARY EFFECTS
300000 homeless, 300 fires but couldnt be put out no water, roads bloacked - emergency services couldnt get through, no one had power- lack of communication, £75 billion worth of damage, transport and subway stopped.
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IMMEDIATE RESPONSES
Survical and rescue- locals joined up to save people, helping people out the rubble, clearing roads, rescue from fires, 300000 people evacuated assess damage to areas and cut gas water and electricity
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LONGTERM RESPONSES
£2.5 billion to rebuild the port, make building eathquake proof, reconstruction of hanshin express, make buildings and ports on reclaimed land, people moving away, better equipment for fires, more jobs and facilities set up, regular drills
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HATI EARTHQUAKE IN LEDC
12th Jan 2012 at 4:53. it was 7.0 on Richter scale and between north american and Caribbean plate - conservitive plate boundary
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PRIMARY EFFECTS
170000 people died, roads fishing ports and bridges destroyed, 3mill people affected,250000 residential buildings destroyed, 30000 commercial buildings collapsed broken phone lines
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SECONDARY EFFECTS
1million people made homeless, 230000 people killed, 300000 injured, outbursts of cholera, liquidation, lack of food
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IMMEDIATE RESPONSES
Saving people from rubble, helping the injured, getting food and water, running into open spaces, sending aid and getting medical teams in
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LONGTERM RESPONSES
Building new houses in different areas, european union gave 330 million euros to Hati and made building eathquake proof
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INDIAN OCEAN TSUNAMI
26th December 2004, 9.1 on Richter scale. Indonesia west coast, destructive plate boundary, 30m high waves
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EFFECTS
230000 people killed, whole towns and villages destroyed, 1.7 million people lost their homes, infastructure damaged, 5/6 million people needed emergency treatment, tourism struggled
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ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGE
Salt from sea water meant that the crops could grow,mangroves,coral reefs, forrests and sand dunes destroyed by waves
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IMMEDIATE RESPONSES
sending in people to help resuce and distribute food and water
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LONG TERM RESPONSES
Programmes set up to rebuild houses, tsunami warning system, disaster management plans
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What are the Alps used for?

Back

Farming, tourism, generating HEP, mining and forestry.

Card 3

Front

FARMING

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

TOURISM

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

GENERATING HEP

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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