GCSE Elizabethan England

1558
Elizabeth was crowned queen aged 25
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1559
Elizabeth's Religious settlements
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What were the religious settlements?
Act of Supremacy, The act of Uniformity
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What was the Act of Supremacy?
This made Protestantism England’s official faith and also set out rules of religious practice and worship in a revised prayer book. This retained some Catholic traditions which Elizabeth hoped would make a good compromise and keep her people happy.
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What was the Act of Uniformity?
Those who refused to attend Church of England services (recusants) were forced to pay a fine of a shilling a week for not attending church on Sundays or holy days
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1569
Northern Rebellion
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What was the Northern Rebellion?
The Catholic Earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland hatched a plan to get Mary, Queen of Scots out of jail and on to the throne. They gathered an army of 6,000 soldiers in their attempt to return England to Catholicism.
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What was the action taken by Elizabeth after the Northern Rebellion?
Elizabeth got wind of the plan and sent a huge army to crush the rebellion. Elizabeth put 800 rebels to death and the two Earls fled to Scotland.
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1570- poor
First Surveys of the poor conducted by Norwich authorities
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Why were the poor so poor?
Henry VIII dissolved Monasteries, Rising population, Inflation, Cloth trade collapse, Bad harvests, Changes in farming
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1570 - Pope
The Pope issues the Regnans in Excelsis, which excommunicates Elizabeth from The Catholic Church
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The Papal Bull 1570
Main aim was to stir up rebellion by forcing English Catholics to choose between their Queen or Religion
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November 1571
Ridolfi Plot
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What was the Ridolfi Plot?
The plot was lead by an Italian Ridolfi, also involved the Duke of Norfolk ,a second Northern Rebellion. The uprising would coincide with a foreign Catholic Invasion from the Netherlands and the murder of Elizabeth. Mary Queen of Scots queen.
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Why did the Ridolfi plot not work?
The plot was uncovered by Elizabeth’s advisor, Cecil. Ridolfi and the Spanish ambassador were arrested and expelled from the country.
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Who was involved in the Ridolfi Plot?
King Philip II of Spain, the Duke of Norfolk, and Mary, Queen of Scots herself. Ridolfi.
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1580- Religion
Jesuit Priests begin to arrive in England from Europe
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What was a Jesuit Priest?
Trained in Rome/ a catholic country and sent over to England to perform Illegal Mass.
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September 1580
Sir Francis Drake completes first Circumnavigation of the globe.
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Francis Drake circumnavigation
Took 3 years, raided Spanish ports,Lands in North America and claims it for Elizabeth, knighted 'Sir' on his return to Plymouth
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1583
John Whitgift appointed arch bishop of Canterbury
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Why was John Whitgift appointed Arch Bishop of Canterbury
Edmund Grindal encouraged Prophesyings, Elizabeth suspended him. John Whitgift became arch bishop in 1583 when Grindal died.
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What was Presbyterians?
Questioned Elizabeth's settlement, and need for bishops.
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What were Prophesyings?
Popular meetings to discuss the bible, criticize Elizabeth and her religious policies.
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Purtitans
Strong protestants.
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powerful puritans
Sir Francis Walsingham, Robert Dudley
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John Whitgift
Cracked down of puritanism.
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what was recusancy?
fines for catholics who didn't take part in protestant service
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1581
Recusancy fines increased to £20
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1585
Elizabeth sends troops to the netherlands to support Dutch Protestant rebels
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July 1586
Babington Plot discovered
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What was the Babington Plot?
Sir Anthony Babington to rescue Mary, Queen of Scots from jail and murder Elizabeth. Secret letters between the plotters and Mary were discovered which gave Elizabeth's advisers the evidence needed to prove Mary’s guilt.
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What was the action taken by Elizabeth after The Babington Plot?
This finally led to the execution of Mary Queen of Scots, Babington and six other plotters
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Trial of Mary Queen of Scots
October 1586, Mary put on trial before a court of 36 noblemen including sir Francis Walsingham and Sir William Cecil. found guilty and sentenced to death on 25th october
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Mary's Death Warrant
Elizabeth was reluctant to sign the warrant, concerned of catholic threat. However signed death warrant on 1st February 1587
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1583
Throckmorton Plot
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What was the Throckmorton Plot?
A young Catholic man, Francis Throckmorton, organised a plan for a French army (paid for by the Pope and King Philip II of Spain) to invade England and replace Elizabeth with Mary, Queen of Scots.
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Elizabeth's action after Throckmorton plot
Throckmorton was executed and Mary was moved to Tutbury Castle in Staffordshire, where she was held in isolation and allowed no visitors.
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1587
Roanoke colony established in North America.
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July- September 1588
Spanish Armada
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What was the Spanish Armada?
English and Spanish naval battle
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Spanish Commander in armada
The Duke of Medina Sidonia - little experience of sailing.
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English Commander in armada
Lord Howard of Effingham – little experience of fighting at sea, but Drake and Hawkins were both very experienced
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Spanish Fleet
130 ships - 64 battleships, 22 huge galleons and 45 converted merchant ships.
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English fleet
200 ships - 54 strong, light and fast battleships, and 140 converted merchant ships.
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Spanish sailors and soldiers
30,000 men on board the fleet and 20,000 soldiers on land.
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English sailors and soldiers
14,000 men on board the fleet and 20,000 soldiers on land.
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Food supplies Spanish
Not fresh – six months’ worth of supplies were stored on the ships.
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Food supplies English
Fresh food supplied daily
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Spanish weapons
2,000 large cannon – could fire heavy cannon balls, but only over a short distance and were slow to load.
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English weapons
200 smaller cannon – could fire over long distance and were quick to load
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Spanish tactics for fighting at sea
Get close so men could board and capture the enemy ships.
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English tactics for fighting at sea
Destroy enemy ships by firing cannon at them from a distance.
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Spanish annual income
£3 million.
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English Annual income
£300,000. Parliament did grant Elizabeth taxes to top this up.
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Casualties
England lost just 100 men compared the 20,000 men and 51 ships lost by the Spanish.
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1590
first of many bad harvests. lots of rural to urban migration for the poor
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1599
opening of the globe theatre in london
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1600
Establishment of East India company
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What was the East India Company?
The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies. better trade with asia
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February 1601
Essex Rebellion
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Who was involved in the Essex Rebellion?
Earl of Essex- Robert Devereux
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What caused the Essex Rebellion?
Elizabeth promoted Robert Cecil who Essex hated, Essex made peace with Ireland specifcally against Queen orders, Argued with Elizabeth and turned his back nearly drew a sword, Queen slapped him, Walked in on queen unwigged
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What Happened? - Essex Rebellion
Essex took 4 privy councillors hostageand marched them to his london home with 200 supporters. Cecil labelled him a traitor, many supporters left and freed hostages. Essex and remaining followers were arrested
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Consequences of the Essex Rebellion
Essex put on Trial for treason and sentenced to death. executed on 25th february 1601
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What did it show?- essex
elizabeth even at the end of her reign would not tollerate challenges of authority
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1601- poor
Poor Law introduced
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What was the Poor Law?
hey brought in a compulsory nationwide Poor Rate system everyone had to contribute and those who refused would go to jail begging was banned and anyone caught was whipped and sent back to their place of birth almshouses were established.
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Types of poor
Helpless poor (sick and old) Able-bodied poor (considered fit) Idle poor
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Helpless poor
given food and accomodation
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Able bodied poor
had to work in exchange for food
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Idle poor
punished and sent to house of correction
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What did the poor law state?
wealthy should be taxed to pay for the care of sick and vunerable fit and healthy paupers given work, house of correction for refusal
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Norwich 1570
80% population lived in poverty, seperated poor into idle poor and unfortunate poor.
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How Effective was the 1601 Poor Law?
Wasn't properly enforced in some areas, each area responsible for own paupers. begging decreased mainly due to threat of house of correction
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March 1603
Queen Elizabeth dies, James 1st takes over throne. English and scotland unite.
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Who were the Privy Council?
Responsible for day to day running of country, powerful landowners, led by a security of state.
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Parliament
Made up of House of Commons and Lords, responsible for passing laws and taxes.
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Justices of Peace
Ever county, enforce law maintain order
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Problems elizabeth faced
Sucession , Religion, Foreign policy, Taxation, Mary Queen of Scots,
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Potential Suitors
Francis duke of anjou and alencon, King Phillip II of Spain, Robert Dudley.
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King Phillip II of Spain
Catholic, Married Mary 1st
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Robert Dudley
Childhood friend of the queen, key figure in royal court and privy council, wife died in mysterious circumstances.
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Peter Wentworth
Arrested 3 times in Elizabeths reign for arguing for freedom of speech
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Great Chain of Being
God, Queen, Nobility, Gentry, Peasantry , Animals and plants
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Nobility
Most powerful and Wealthy, Titles passed on in generations
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Gentry
Wealthy Landowners.
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Rise of the Gentry
Before Elizabeths reign, almost all wealth was held by Nobility. NOW- people could make money from trade, gentry grew
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Theatre
William Shakespeare, Male profession, Cheap, New and exciting, social event
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The pit
area of a theatre where ordinary people stood to watch, open to the weather
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The Gallaries
Seating are for the rich, covered
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Heavens- theatre
ropes and rigging used for scene changes and dramatic entrances
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Opposition to the Theatre
Puritans saw theatregoing as a distraction from prayer, Large gatherings might spread disease, Dangerous places, Sinful
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Golden Age
art, peace and pride, Science and Technology, Education, Literature, Buildings, Theatre, Exploration
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Education
Weathly boys and some girls recieved, increasingly important
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education
he ability to read and write became a highly desirable asset. Wealthier boys were better educated than ever before. New universities and schools were opened. Some grammar schools with the name ‘Queen Elizabeth’ in the title still exist today.
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Was it really a Golden Age?
Dog Fighting still popular, Torture and execution still used by government, majority still poor, life expectancy was low
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Walter Raleigh
1584 given permission to explore the new world, allowed to colonise any land, had to give Queen 1/5 of treasure found
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How was exploration possible?
Defences, Technology, Navigation
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John Hawkins
Respectable sailor and courtier, responsible for building up navy in spanish armada, successful privateer, brought tobacco back to england
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1564
John Hawkins kidnapped several hundred west africans
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Wealth due to Voyages
Raid spanish ports, Trading systems established
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Naval Warfare
Line of battle tactic, raid common form of attack, fireships, better cannons, triangle sail
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The weather in the armada
Storms caused destruction to the spanish fleet, delayed spanish.
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Consequences of Armada
England major Naval power
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Hardwick Hall
Built by Bess of Hardwick
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Who was Bess of Hardwick?
Elizabeth Shrewsbury- Elizabeth's friend and a lady in waiting. Looked after Mary Queen of Scots when under house arrest
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Hardwick Hall features
Windows, Chimneys, Italian Renaissance design, 'ES' at top, portraits, loggia
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Elizabeth's Religious settlements

Back

1559

Card 3

Front

Act of Supremacy, The act of Uniformity

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

This made Protestantism England’s official faith and also set out rules of religious practice and worship in a revised prayer book. This retained some Catholic traditions which Elizabeth hoped would make a good compromise and keep her people happy.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Those who refused to attend Church of England services (recusants) were forced to pay a fine of a shilling a week for not attending church on Sundays or holy days

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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