GCSE Biology B2 Keywords

  • Created by: GSidhu
  • Created on: 15-09-18 21:50
Active transport
The movement of molecules across a membrane moving from low concentration to high concentration and requiring energy
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Adaptations
Changes to behavioral or physical features to become more suited to the environment
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Adult stem cells
Undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults
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Cell division
How new cells are formed
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Cell lines
A cell culture developed from a single cell and therefore consisting of cells with a uniform genetic make-up
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Concentration gradient
Caused by a difference in concentration of molecules in two areas next to each other
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Culture
Growing cells in an artificial environment
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Daughter cell
Either of the two cells formed when a cell undergoes cell division by mitosis
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Differentiation
The process of cells becoming specialised
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Diffusion
The net movement of particles (ions, atoms, or molecules) from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until the concentration is uniform (reaches equilibrium). It does not require energy
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DNA replication
Process of producing two identical replica molecules of DNA from one original DNA molecule
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Embryo
Ball of cells formed when a fertilised cell (zygote) starts to dividde
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Embryonic stem cells
Unspecialised cells found in embryos that are able to develop into any type of cell in the body
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Ethical
Whether something is seen as right or wrong, in terms of people's beliefs
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Fertilisation
The fusion of the nuclei of two gametes e.g. sperm and egg cells in animals or the pollen grain and ovule in plants
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Flaccid
When plant cells are not completely full of water and there is less pressure inside the cell causing the plants structure to become limp or wilt
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Gamete
Sex cells such as sperm or egg cells in animals and pollen or ovules in plants. These cells only contain half the number of chromosomes of body cells
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IVF
In vitro fertilization is a procedure in which eggs (ova) from a woman's ovary are removed. They are fertilised with sperm in a laboratory procedure, and then the fertilised egg (embryo) is returned to the woman's uterus
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Meiosis
Type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores
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Mitosis
A type of cell division that results in two daughter cells each with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell, as in the production of tissue cells
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Organ
Group of tissues in a living organism that have been adapted to carry out a specific function
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Organ system
Group of organs in a living organism that work together to perform a particular function e.g. the liver, stomach and small intestine are all organs of the digestive system.
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Osmosis
The net movement of water molecules from a region of high concentration of water molecules to a region of low concentration of water molecules across a partially permeable membrane
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Palisade cells
Cells that are capable of photosynthesis found above the spongy mesophyll layer of cells in a leaf
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Partially permeable membrane
Membrane that will only allow certain molecules to pass through it by diffusion, but not others
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Passive transport
The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the need of energy input
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Photosynthesis
A chemical reaction that produces glucose
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Plasmolysis
Shrinking of the cytoplasm away from the cell wall due to water moving out of a plant cell by osmosis
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Specialised tissue
A group of cells such as epithelial tissue which work together for a specialised function. For example, excretion, absorption, or secretion
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Stem cells
An undifferentiated cell
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Transport protein
Protein found in cell membranes that facilitate the movement of molecules or ions across the cell membrane. Each transport protein is specific to a particular molecule or ion
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Turgid
When a plant cell is inflated with water
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Water potential
The water potential of pure water is 0 and the water potential of a solution will be negative. If there is a gradient of water potential between two cells, water will diffuse down the gradient until equilibrium is reached
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Zygote
A fertilized egg
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Air spaces
The spaces between cells in a leaf through which gases can diffuse
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Alveolus
Air sacs at the end of the bronchioles which are the gaseous exchange surface in the lungs
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Aorta
The main artery that transport blood from the left ventricle to the rest of the body
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Aortic valve
The semi-lunar valve between the left ventricle and the aorta
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Arteries
Blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart to organs throughout the body
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Bicuspid valve
Another name for the mitral valve
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Blood
Transport fluid of the body
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Bronchioles
The airways branching off the bronchi in the lungs and leading to the alveoli
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Bronchus
The left and right bronchi are the airways branching from the trachea and branching into the smaller bronchioles
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Capillaries
Microscopic blood vessels that form networks throughout the body tissues to allow for exchange of substances between cells and the blood
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Chordae tendinae
Thread-like bands of fibrous tissue which attach on one end to the edges of the tricuspid and mitral valves of the heart and on the other end of the papillary muscles, small muscles within the heart that serve to anchor the valves
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Circulatory system
The system that circulates blood around the body
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Companion cells
Provide ATP and nutrients and carry out all of the cellular functions of a sieve-tube element in plants
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Coronary arteries
Branch off the aorta to supply the heart muscle with blood
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Deficiency
Insufficient amount of something, for example mineral deficiencies in plants cause various problems with plant function and growth
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Diaphragm
The muscle that separates the chest (thoracic) cavity from the abdomen and is involved in the process of inhaling and exhaling
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Double circulatory system
Circulation system for blood, that has a separate circuit for blood travelling to and from the lungs to the heart and another circuit transporting blood to and from the body to the heart
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Exchange surfaces
Where exchange of substances can happen. For example, in gaseous exchange in the lungs and the exchange surfaces are the alveoli
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Gill filament
The soft fleshy part of the gills, through which oxygen is taken into the blood from the water passing through the gills
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Gills
The respiratory organ of fish and some amphibians that absorbs dissolved oxygen from water
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Guard cells
Pair of cells in the epidermis that control the opening and closing of a stoma of a leaf. When swollen with water, guard cells pull apart from each other, opening the stoma to allow the escape of water vapour and the exchange of gases
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Haemoglobin
Protein molecule in red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and returns carbon dioxide from the tissues back to the lungs
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Heart
Organ of the circulatory system that pumps blood around the body
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Humid
When air contains a high amount of water or water vapur
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Inferior vena cava
Large vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart
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Intercostal muscles
Group of 22 pairs of tiny muscles found between the ribs. These muscles play a vital role in the movement of the chest during breathing. They also help to solidify the thoracic region and protect the lungs
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Leaf
Main organs of photosynthesis and transpiration in plants
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Left atrium
One of four chambers of the heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs
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Left ventricle
One of the four chambers of the heart. It recieves oxygenated blood from the left atrium and pumps it around the body. The wall of the left ventricle is made of thickened muscle to help it pump blood the large distances required
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Lignin
Complex organic compound that binds to cellulose fibres and hardens and strengthens the cell wall of plant
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Lower epidermis
Layer of cells forming the lower surface of a leaf and containing many guard cells and stomata
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Lumen
The open space inside a tubular structure e.g. inside a blood vessel or the inside of the xylem and phloem of plants
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Lungs
The main organs of the respiratory system that have the function of transporting oxygen from the air into the blood and removing carbon dioxide from the blood
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Mitral valve
Valve between left atrium and left ventricle of the heart. It is also known as the bicuspid valve
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Oxyhaemoglobin
A bright red substance formed by the combination of haemoglobin with oxygen, present in oxygenated blood
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Palisade cells
Elongated cells capable of photosynthesis in the upper part of the leaf
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Phloem
Living tissue that carries organic nutrients in particular, sucrose, a sugar, to all parts of the plant where needed. Phloem consists of several different kinds of cells: sieve elements, parenchyma cells, sclereids, and fibres
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Photometer
Device used for measuring the rate of water uptake of a leafy shoot
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Plasma
Pale yellow coloured liquid component of blood that normally holds the blood cells and other components of blood in suspension
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Platelets
Irregular fragments of large bone marrow cells in the blood plasma that assist in blood clotting
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Pulmonary artery
Artery carrying blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation
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Pulmonary valve
The semilunar valve of the heart that lies between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery
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Pulmonary vein
Large blood vessels that receive oxygenated blood from the lungs and drain into the left atrium of the heart
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Red blood cells
Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the tissues. In mammals, the red blood cells is disc-shaped and biconcave, contains haemoglobin, and lacks a nucleas
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Ribs
Curved bone that makes up the rib cage and protects the lungs. Along with the intercostal muscles and diaphragm, they are responsible for changing the volume of the chest cavity to enable inhaling and exhaling
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Right atrium
One of the four chambers of the heart. Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium through the inferior and superior vena cava from the body
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Right ventricle
One of the four chambers of the heart. It is responsible for pumping deoxygenated blood to the lungs
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Root hair cell
Specialised cells in the roots of plants that have a large surface area for absorbing water from soil
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Semi-lunar valves
Act to prevent backflow of blood from the arteries to the ventricles
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Septum
Muscle tissue that separates the right and left side of the heart
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Sieve plates
End wall of a sieve-tube element in phloem, containing many pores through which food material is conducted
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Spiracles
Small openings on the surface of some animals, for example insects, that lead to the tracheae
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Spongy mesophyll cells
Layer of cells in the interior of leaves below the palisade layer, consisting of loosely arranged, irregularly shaped cells that are capable of photosynthesis
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Stomata
Openings on the surface of leaves through which gases and water can move
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Sucrose
Sugar made up of glucose and fructose
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Superior vena cava
Large vein carrying deoxygenated blood from the head arms and upper body into the right atrium of the heart
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Trachea
Wide, hollow tube that connects the larynx (or voice box) to the bronchi of the lungs
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Tracheae
System of air-filled tubes that insects, and some other invertebrates, exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between their tissues and the air by
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Translocation
Movement of materials from leaves to other tissues throughout the plant
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Transpiration
Evaporation of water from the stomata of a plant causing water to be drawn up the plant through the xylem
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Tricuspid valve
Valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle. Also known as right atrioventricular valve
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Upper epidermis
Single layer of cells forming the upper surface of a leaf containing few or no chloroplasts. The cells are quite transparent and permit most of the light that strikes them to pass through to the underlying palisade cells
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Valve
Found in the heart and veins and prevent backflow of blood
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Vascular bundle
Made up of xylem and phloem
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Veins
Blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart
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Ventilate
Exchange of air between the lungs and the atmosphere so that oxygen can be exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli
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Waxy cuticle
Protective waterproof coating on the surface of leaves
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White blood cells
Part of the immune system. The two main groups of white blood cells are lymphocytes, which are able to produce antibodies and antitoxins, and phagocytes which can ingest pathogens
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Xylem
Transport tissue in plants which transports water and solutes from the roots to the leaves
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Changes to behavioral or physical features to become more suited to the environment

Back

Adaptations

Card 3

Front

Undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

How new cells are formed

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A cell culture developed from a single cell and therefore consisting of cells with a uniform genetic make-up

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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