GCSE Biology B1 Keywords

  • Created by: GSidhu
  • Created on: 06-09-18 18:46
Cell functions
What the cell does
1 of 86
Cell membrane
A selective barrier to molecules which controls substances that enter and leave the cell
2 of 86
Cellular respiration
A chemical reaction which releases energy from organic molecules (such as glucose)
3 of 86
Chlorophyll
A green pigment found in the chloroplast which absorbs sunlight
4 of 86
Chloroplasts
Where photosynthesis happens in the cell
5 of 86
Chromosome
A single strand of DNA
6 of 86
Cover slip
A thin piece of glass used to cover a specimen on a microscope slide
7 of 86
Electron microscopy
Equipment which uses a beam of electrons to magnify a specimen
8 of 86
Enzymes
Proteins which are biological catalysts, they speed up the rate of reactions in cells
9 of 86
Eukaryotic cells
Cells that have a nucleas
10 of 86
Genetic material
DNA controls the cell function
11 of 86
Genome
All the genetic material inside a cell
12 of 86
Graticule
A scale placed inside the eye piece of a microscope which can be used to measure specimens using eye piece units. These need to be calibrated
13 of 86
Lamp
Light source in a light microscope
14 of 86
Lens
The part of the microscope which focuses and magnifies (made of glass in a light microscope and magnets in an electron microscope)
15 of 86
Magnification
How much an object is enlarged by/scale of enlargement
16 of 86
Receptor molecules
Found in cell membranes which bind to specific molecules resulting in a change in cell function
17 of 86
Resolution
Shortest distance between two points on a specimen that can still be distinguished
18 of 86
SEM (Scanning electron microscopy)
A microscope which uses a beam of electrons to magnify a specimen it allows scientists to see the surface of biological specimens
19 of 86
Slides
A piece of glass used to mount a specimen to view using a light microscope
20 of 86
Stage
The part of the light microscope which hold the slide so you can view the specimen
21 of 86
Staining
Used to make it easier to see specific structures or the position the biological molecules within the cell
22 of 86
Sub-cellular structures
Parts found inside the cell such as mitochondria and nucleus. Also known as organelles
23 of 86
TEM (Transmission electron microscope)
A microscope that uses a beam of electrons to magnify a specimen. This type of electron microscope looks at sections of biological specimens.
24 of 86
Active site
The part of the enzyme molecule where the substrate binds. The active site gives the enzyme its specificity
25 of 86
Active transport
The movement of molecules across a membrane moving from low concentration to high concentration that needs energy
26 of 86
Amino acid
Make proteins. The repeating unit/monomer in a protein
27 of 86
Amylase
An enzyme which breaks down starch into maltose
28 of 86
Complementary bases
DNA which always bind to each other e.g. A-T and G-C
29 of 86
Denature
A change in protein shape caused by a change in temperature or pH
30 of 86
DNA
A large polymer found in the nucleas. It has a double helix shape
31 of 86
DNA sequence
The order of the bases on a strand of DNA: ATGCCCCATTTAACG. This could be a DNA sequence
32 of 86
Enzyme concentration
The quantity of enzyme in a solution
33 of 86
Enzyme specificity
Enzymes can only bind to the one substrate because of the shape of the active site
34 of 86
Iodine
The test for starch. Iodine turns blue-black in the presence of starch
35 of 86
Lock and key hypothesis
A scientific model to explain how the enzyme and substrate bind together because of the shape of the active site
36 of 86
Metabolism
All the chemical reactions that take place in an organism
37 of 86
Nucleotide
The repeating unit of the DNA molecule made of a phosphate, sugar and DNA base
38 of 86
Optimum
E.g. optimum pH or optimum temperature, the point at which enzyme activity is at it's highest
39 of 86
pH
A measure of how acidic or basic a substance is
40 of 86
Polymer
A large chain molecule made up of repeating units. DNA is a polymer and so are proteins
41 of 86
Protein
A polymer made up of amino acids which have a range of uses in cells including enzymes and structural components. Proteins are needed for growth and repair
42 of 86
Protein synthesis
Making proteins from amino acids. It has two components translation and transcription
43 of 86
Rate
The speed at which a reaction occurs
44 of 86
Starch
Used to store energy in plants. It is a polymer of glucose and is insoluble
45 of 86
Substrate
The reactant in an enzyme reaction, it fits into the active site of an enzyme
46 of 86
Temperature
A measure of the amount of kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
47 of 86
Transcription
The copying of the DNA sequence of a gene into mRNA, this occurs in the nucleas
48 of 86
Translation
The synthesis of proteins from amino acids using the mRNA sequence which occurs in the ribosomes
49 of 86
Triplet code
A group of 3 bases in the DNA sequence which code for a particular amino acid. This is also called a codon. TAC are the three bases in DNA which code for the amino acid MET
50 of 86
Aerobic respiration
A chemical reaction that takes place in all living cells to release energy in the presence of oxygen. C6H12O6 + 6O2 = 6H2O + 6CO2
51 of 86
Amino acids
Make proteins. They are the monomer or repeating units in a protein
52 of 86
Anaerobic respiration
Respiration that occurs without oxygen which makes lactic acid
53 of 86
Benedict's test
A chemical test for glucose. If glucose is present, the solution changes from blue to brick red
54 of 86
Biuret's test
A chemical test for proteins. If proteins are present, the solution changes from blue to lilac
55 of 86
Breakdown
Changing a large molecule into two or more similar molecules
56 of 86
Carbohydrase
An enzyme which breaks down carbohydrates into simple sugars
57 of 86
Carbohydrates
Polymer made of simple sugar repeats e.g. cellulose, starch, and glycogen
58 of 86
Cellular respiration
A chemical reaction which releases energy from molecules such as glucose
59 of 86
Exothermic reaction
A reaction which releases energy to the surroundings. Respiration is an example.
60 of 86
Fatty acids
Fats and lipids are made of fatty acids and glycerol
61 of 86
Fermentation
Anaerobic respiration where one of the products is ethanol. C6H12O6 = 2C2H5OH + 2CO2
62 of 86
Fungi
A kingdom of living things which are characterised by having chitin in their cell walls
63 of 86
Glycerol
A component of fats and lipids along with fatty acids
64 of 86
Lipase
An enzyme that breaks down fats to fatty acids and glycerol
65 of 86
Lipids
Large molecules made up of smaller units of fatty acids and glycerol
66 of 86
Products
The substances made in a chemical reaction
67 of 86
Protease
An enzyme which breaks down proteins to amino acids
68 of 86
Proteins
A polymer made of amino acids which have a range of uses in cells including enzymes and structural components
69 of 86
Relative yields of ATP
Aerobic respiration releases 19 times more energy than anaerobic respiration from the same amount of glucose
70 of 86
Substrates
The reactants in an enzyme catalysed reaction which fit into an enzymes active site
71 of 86
Sugars
The repeating units of carbohydrates
72 of 86
Synthesis
Joining molecules together. For example, amino acids are joined together to form proteins during protein synthesis
73 of 86
Biomass
The total quantity of organisms in a given area or volume
74 of 86
Carbohydrates
Chemicals made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Carbohydrates can store energy
75 of 86
Carbon dioxide
A gas which has molecules made up of a carbon and two oxygen atoms that are bonded together
76 of 86
Cellulose
A polymer of glucose found in the cell wall of plants
77 of 86
Concentration
The number of molecules in a given volume of a substance
78 of 86
Endothermic reaction
A chemical reaction that requires energy from the surroundings for it to take place. Photosynthesis is an example
79 of 86
Light intensity
The amount of energy transmitted. It is a limiting factor for photosynthesis
80 of 86
Limiting factors for photosynthesis
A factor present in an environment that effects the rate of photosynthesis
81 of 86
Mesophyll cells
Cells that are capable of photosynthesis. For example, the spongy mesophyll cells and the palisade cells
82 of 86
Photosynthesis
A chemical reaction that produces glucose. 6CO2 + 6H2O = C6H12O6 + 6O2
83 of 86
Temperature
A measure of the amount of kinetic energy of the molecules in a substance
84 of 86
Two stage process
A process that has two main stages to form it's final products. For example, in photosynthesis, water is split to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen molecules, then the hydrogen ions combine with carbon dioxide to produce glucose
85 of 86
Vein
A network of vascular bundles made up of xylem and phloem, which transports materials in and out of the leaf
86 of 86

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

A selective barrier to molecules which controls substances that enter and leave the cell

Back

Cell membrane

Card 3

Front

A chemical reaction which releases energy from organic molecules (such as glucose)

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

A green pigment found in the chloroplast which absorbs sunlight

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Where photosynthesis happens in the cell

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Biology resources:

See all Biology resources »See all Cells, tissues and organs resources »