GCSE Biology - B1

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Nucleus (Animal + Plant)
Contains genetic material that controls the activity of the cell.
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Cytoplasm (Animal + Plant + Bacteria)
Contains enzymes that control chemical reactions.
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Cell Membrane (Animal + Plant + Bacteria)
Hold the cell together and controls what goes in and out.
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Mitochondria (Animal + Plant)
Where respiration takes place.
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Ribosomes (Animal + Plant)
Where the proteins are made in the cell.
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Rigid Cell Wall (Plant + Bacteria)
Supports the cell and strengthens it.
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Permanent Vacuole (Plant)
Contains cell sap, a weak solution of sugar and salts.
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Chloroplasts (Plants)
Contains chlorophyll which absorbs light nedded for the photosynthesis which occurs here.
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Plasmids (Bacteria)
Small ring of DNA.
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What is a bacterial cell?
A Prokaryote
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What are animal and plant cells?
Eukaryotes
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Formula for Magnification
Magnification = Image Size / Real Size
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How are sperm cells adapted for reproduction?
1. Long tail and streamlined head to ease swimming to egg. 2. Lots of mitochondria in the head to provide energy needed. 3. Carries enzymes to digest through egg membrane.
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How are nerve cells adapted for rapid signalling?
1. Long to cover more distance over the body. 2. Branched connections to form a network throughout the body.
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How are muscle cells adapted for contractions?
1. Long so that they have the space to contract. 2. Contain lots of mitochondria to generate the energy needed for this contraction.
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How are root hair cells adapted for absorbing water and minerals?
1. Grow into long hairs to maximise the surface area and therefore increase the uptake of water and minerals from the soil.
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How are phloem cells adapted for transporting food?
1. Small pores which allow cell sap to move through. 2. Goes in both directions.
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How are xylem cells adapted for transporting water?
1. Made of dead xylem cells which form a tube which allow the water and minerals to pass through.
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How many chromosomes does a human cell contain?
23 pairs, or 46 altogether.
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Describe - Diffusion
Diffusion is the gradual movement of both solutions and gases from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient.
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Describe - Osmosis
Osmosis is the gradual movement of water from a high concentration gradient to a low concentration gradient across a partially permeable membrane.
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Describe - Active Transport
Active Transport is the gradual movement of particles against the concentration gradient - from a low to a higher concentration.
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How are the alveoli adapted to maximise the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide?
1. Enormous surface area to volume ratio. 2. A moist lining for diffusuing gases. 3. Very thin walls. 4. A good blood supply.
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How are the villi adapted to absorb digested food more quickly?
1. Hair like structures to increase surface area for absorption. 2. A single layer of surface cells. 3. A very good blood supply to assist quick absorption.
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What are the stomata used for?
1. Carbon dioxide diffusion (in). 2. Oxygen and water vapour diffusion (out).
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What are the guard cells used for?
Control the size of the stomata. They will close if the plant is losing water faster than it is being replced by the roots.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Cytoplasm (Animal + Plant + Bacteria)

Back

Contains enzymes that control chemical reactions.

Card 3

Front

Cell Membrane (Animal + Plant + Bacteria)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Mitochondria (Animal + Plant)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Ribosomes (Animal + Plant)

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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