GCSE AQA 9-1 Biology B1 revision

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List the five parts that plant and animal cells have in them and give the function of each part.
Nucleus - control centre, membrane - controls the passage of substances into and out of the cell, cytoplasm - where the chemical reactions take place, mitochondria - site of energy release, ribosomes - protein synthesis occurs here
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List the 3 parts that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells.
Chloroplasts - contain the green pigment chlorophyll that captures the sunlight, vacuole - contains cell sap and keeps cell open, cell wall - strengthens the cell and made of cellulose
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Name 3 specialised cells found in animals.
Sperm cells, nerve cells, muscle cells
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Name 3 specialised cells found in plants
Root hair cells, xylem (water tubes), phloem (transports sugars and dissolved substances)
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Give the advantages of using an electron microscope instead of a light microscope.
Higher magnification - so it can be used to see much smaller things or things in greater detail.
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Give the equation for magnification.
Magnification = size of the image / size of the real object
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What are chromosomes made of?
DNA
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Explain what happens during mitosis
Chromosomes make copies of themselves. 1 set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the cell and the nucleus divides. The cytoplasm and cell membrane divide to form 2 new identical cells.
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Define a stem cell
Undifferentiated cell of an organism which is capable of producing many more cells of the same type and which other cells can arise from differentiation.
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Where do stem cells come from?
Embryos, adult bone marrow, meristems in plants
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Give 2 conditions that stem cells can be used to treat.
Diabetes, paralysis
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Give the advantages and disadvantages of stem cell treatments
Cures illnesses, can be classed as unethical or playing god, concerns over the long term health risks, embryos can be at greater risk of miscarriage
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Stem cells from meristems can be used to produce clones of plants quickly and economically, what may these clones be used for?
Protect rare species from extinction, produce crops with special features such as disease resistance.
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Define diffusion.
Diffusion is the spreading out of particles in any substance in a solution, or particles in a gas, resulting in the net movement from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.
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Name the substances that diffuse in and out of the blood in the lungs.
Oxygen in, carbon dioxide out.
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Which three factors affect the rate of diffusion?
Concentration gradient, temperature, surface area of the membrane
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How are the lungs in mammals adapted to exchange gases?
Large surface area, moist surface, short diffusion pathway due to a thin cell membrane, efficient blood supply, well ventilated so the concentration gradient is maintained.
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How are the leaves in a plant adapted to exchange gases?
Thin, large surface area, lots of air spaces
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Define osmosis.
Water movement across a cell membrane from a dilute solution to a concentrated solution through a partially permeable membrane.
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Define active transport.
Movement of substances from a more dilute solution to a more concentrated solution against a concentration gradient. This requires energy from respiration.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

List the 3 parts that are found in plant cells but not in animal cells.

Back

Chloroplasts - contain the green pigment chlorophyll that captures the sunlight, vacuole - contains cell sap and keeps cell open, cell wall - strengthens the cell and made of cellulose

Card 3

Front

Name 3 specialised cells found in animals.

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Name 3 specialised cells found in plants

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Give the advantages of using an electron microscope instead of a light microscope.

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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