Gastrointestinal System - AaP

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What kind of fluid does the peritoneal cavity contain? This is located in the abdominal cavity.
Serous Fluid. This lies between Parietal Peritoneum - lines body wall. Visceral Peritoneum - lines external surface of most GI organs.
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What kind of Palates are in the Oral Cavity?
Anterior - HARD , Posterior - SOFT
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What is Enamel?
The visible section, it has stress points and is in constant remineralization.
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What is Dentin?
Beneath the enamel, Tougher and Harder (harder tissue). It is dependent on PULP CAVITY (Contains blood supply)
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In the salivary glands, what is the Parotid
Structure that contains enzymes --> parotid ducts can open on the opposite sides of upper 2nd molars
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The submandibular?
Contains enzymes and mucous
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The Sublingual?
Contains mucous saliva. It is drained by ducts of Rivinus in floor of mouth.
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What is the relation between the position of the Oesophagus and the Trachea?
Oesophagus sits behind the trachea (it is is posterior to trachea). Because trachea does not need to change shape i.e expansion unlike Oesphagus, needs to consider expansion due to food. Also Trachea protects oesophagus as trachea is harder than O.
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What are sphincters? (Oesophogeal Sphincters)
Circular muscle valves - can constrict the flow one way or another. Involuntary and voluntary control for letting stuff in. In O, contains two - upper and lower.
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Outline the inner structure of the Oesophugus from deep to superficial.
Mucosa --> Submucosa --> Muscularis (Circular Layer) --> Muscularis (Longitudinal Layer).
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WHat is the function of mucosa and submucosa layer?
Mucosa - functional layer , Submucosa - stops muscular layer from crushing mucosa.
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What are the three main regions of the stomach from top to boittom?
Fundus --> Body --> Pylorus
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Where is the Stomach situated?
Under the liver and diaphragm. Epigastric and left hypocondrium region.
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True or False, the stomach can alter its size and position in response to eating.
TRUE
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Why is the PYLORUS important?
It is the Pyloric Sphincter - allows the passing from stomach to the next stage. It contains a stress point which allows more food to pass through when full --> although intestine less able to absorb.
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How does the stomach muscle contract multiangley?
Same layer as oesphagus but with extra oblique muscle.
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Where is the larger curve on the stomach?
The larger curve is at the left side of the stomach.
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What are the folds known as in the internal anatomy of the muscle?
Ruggae
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Why is the Myenteric Plexus?
Around the longitudinal layer --> there are spider like features --> myenteric plexus --> they are nerves that can control rate of contraction.
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What is the Duodenum?
It is the first section of small intestine. Four parts - superior, descending, horizontal, ascending.
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What is the Jejunum?
Middle section - there is no clear division between the jejunum and Ileum. Contains villi - which the site of absorption.
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What is a villi and microvilli?
Each villus has an arteriole, venule, lymph vessel. Villi are lined
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How are the intestines supported?
Mesentery - pair of membranes --> Adheres them to the posterior abdominal wall - provides degree of mobility. : Huge network of blood vessels
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What is the Ileum? And its function?
Absorbs bile salts and vitamins - anything that is missed by Jejunum.
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The jejunum is shorter than the Ileum. Why?
Jejunum has few vascular arcades. More Pilcae Circulars in Jejunum. Absorption is greater in jejunum so there are more circulars.
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Jejunum vs Ileum
Ileum has Peyer's Patches --> it is a collection of lymphoid tissue related to immune system, specialised epithelium containing M Cells
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What is the Caecum?
Blind pouch - breakdown of plant material. The thing that comes of Caecum is the Appendix --> blood supply, lymph nodes. If blocked, gut bacteria is trapped --> causes inflammation, scar tissue --> burst appendix.
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Colon - parts
Asceding --> Transvers --> Descending --> Sigmoid
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What are the surface feature of the colon?
Contains Teniae Coli (Longitudinal smooth muscle bands. Inside) , Haustra (Sacculations caused by the teniae, little blob thing).
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Function of the Rectum and Anus
Rectal folds - helps regulate flow. Contains internal anal sphincter (Smooth muscle so NO CONTROL). External anal sphincter (Striated Muscle so you CAN CONTROL).
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For the enteric nervous system, what does the GI wall have?
Complex network of neruons. Myenteric Plexus and the Submucosal Plexus.
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What happens during the Cephalic Phase of digestion?
Neural centers in the Cerebral Cortex, Hypothalamus and Brain stem are activates via sight or smell. This is done for the preparation of digestion.
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What does the brain stem do?
Brain stem activates the facial (CN VII) and glossopharyngeal (CN IX) nerves to stimulate secretion of saliva. Vagus nerves (CN X) stimulates secretion of gastric juice.
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What happens when the food reaches the stomach, which phase begins?
Gastric Phase of digestion - hormone GASTRIN promote secretion of gastric juice and increase gastric motility.
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What happens when the food reaches the small intestine, which phase begins?
Intestinal Phase of digestion - Neural and hormonal responses promote the continues digestion of foods that are in the SI.
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What is a the Colon and what is its function?
Simple columnar epithelium made up of (absorptive cells and goblet cells form intestinal glands). Function - water and ion absorption, mucous secretion
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How does the Colon differ from the ileum?
No circular folds, No villi. BUT microvilli present on absorptive cells.
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In the Large Intestine, what is the gastroileal reflex?
Causes relaxation of the ileocecal valve, intensifies peristalsis in the ileum and forces any chyme into the caecum.
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In the Large Intestine, what is the gastrocolic reflex?
intensifies strong peristaltic waves that begin at the middle of the transverse colon --> drives the contents of the colon into the rectum.
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Conditions relating to excretion and motility.
Diarrhoea --> increased fluid caused by increased gut motility and decreased intestinal absorption.
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Conditions relating to excretion and motility. 2
Constipation --> Decreased gut motility leading to further water absorption in colon dryness of poop.
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Conditions relating to inflammatory and blockage.
Peptic Ulcers. Appendicitis. Pancreatitis --> Gallstone, pancreatic stones. INFLAMMATORY --> Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis --> INFL of distal ileum/proximal colon. UC -->infl of mucosa distal colon.
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What is Omphaloceles?
Bowel development outside of abdominal cavity.
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What is the Liver responsible for?
Phagocytosis of bacteria via Kupffer cells. Excretion of bilirubin. Storage of vitamins and minerals. Metabolic functions of glycogen to glucose, synthesis cholesterol, ATP production etc..
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Where are Kupffer Cells located?
Hepatic Sinusoids - highly permeable capillaries. Fixed site phagocytes destroys bacteria and old RBCs and WBcs from venous blood draining from GI tract. Produces ECM and Collagen.
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What structure supplies blood to the Hepatic Sinusoids?
Hepatic Artery (oxygenated) , Hepatic portal vein (deoxygenated).
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What is the Bile Canuliculi? and its function?
Small ducts between hepatocytes. It's function is to collect bile that is formed there and to pass it into the bile ducts.
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Where does the bile ducts merge to?
They merge to become L and R hepatic ducts --> common bile duct.
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Drainage - the portal triad. ???
Liver receives blood from 2 sources. Blood leaves via 1. Triad consists of 1 artery, 1 vein, 1 duct.
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Outline the circulation through the liver.
(Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery + nutrient rich deox blood from hepatic portal vein) --> Liver sinusoids --> Central Vein --> Hepatic vein --> Inferior Vena Cava --> Right Atrium of heart.
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What does the common bile duct join with and what does it form?
The CBD joins with the pancreatic duct to form hepatopancreatic ampulla which is proximal to the second part of the duodenum.
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Where is the duodenal papilla situated?
It pirces the intestinal mucosa to deliver its contents.
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Outline the drainage of bile.
(Right hepatic duct + Left hepatic duct) --> Common hepatic duct from liver -->Cystic duct from gallbladder --> Common bile duct --> Pancreatic duct from pancreas --> Duodenum
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True or false, between meals, the hepatopancreatic ampulla is OPEN as bile backs-up into the gall bladder where it is stored and concentrated.
FALSE! It is CLOSED because you dont want bile to go back up.
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What does the gallbladder release? And how is this different from the liver?
BILE! into the duodenum and jejunum. This is modified as there is LESS water and electrolytes.
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What stimulates the release of BILE?
CHOLECYSTOKININ!
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What is the function of BILE?!
Emulsifies fats to prevent aggregation --> aids digestion. Gallstones can form from the saturation of bile with cholesterol or bilibubin.
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Which vascular structure branches of the abdominal aorta to supply oxygen to the pancreas?
Mesenteric Artery and Mesentery vein.
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Where is the pancreas situated in relation to the stomach?
Posterior to Greater curvature of stomach. 1 inch thick. EXTRA --> Uncinate process wraps posteriorly around the blood supply.
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What are the Duct of Wirsung and the Duct of Santorini?
Where secretions pass into. Ducts converge to from these two larger ducts.
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Which of the ducts is the accessory duct?
Duct of Santorini.
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Which of the Ducts is the larger one?
Wirsung --> Joins the common bile duct --> forms ampulla and opens into duodenum via major duodenal papilla.
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What is the function of the Ducts of Santorini?
It is often non-functional --> empties directly into duodenum. It lies superior to the ampulla.
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What supplies the blood?
Splenic and superior mesenteric arteries, superior and inferior pancreaicduodenal arteries.
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What takes away the blood?
Veins - the correspond to the name.
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What are the constituents of Pancreatic Juice?
Primarily water, NaCl and NaHCO3 (water, salt, sodiumbicarbonate).
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What does amylase do?
Carbs --> Sugars
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What does Trypsin, elastase, chymotrypsin do?
Digest proteins
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What does Lipase do?
Triglycerides --> Fatty Acids.
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What is Gastrin?
Hormone that aids digestion by stimulating certain cells in the stomach to produce acid.
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Glucagon?
Hormone that helps insulin maintain normal blood glucose via stimulation of cells to release glucose to release blood glucose levels.
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Insulin?
Allows body cells to absorb and use gluces --> drop blood glucose level.
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Somatostatin?
Hormone that is secreted to maintain a balance of glucose and or salt in the blood when levels of pancreatic hormones e.g insulin glucagon are too high.
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Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP)?
Hormone that helps control water secretion and absorption from the intestines via the stimulation of intestinal cells to release water and salts into the intestines.
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Bilirubin is the yellow breakdown of...
Haem
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What are secreted into the stomach?
Gastric Lipase, Pepsinogen, Gastrin, HCL
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What is the tissue layers of the STOMACH from External to Internal?
Serosa . Ruggae . Longitudinal Muscle . Circular Muscle . Oblique Muscle . Submucosa . Mucosa . Ruggae . Lumen
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Circulation of the liver. Starting from the liver.
Oxygenated blood from hepatic artery --> Liver sinusoids --> Central Vein --> Hepatic Vein --> Inferior Vena Cava --> RA of Heart
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What kind of Palates are in the Oral Cavity?

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What is Enamel?

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Card 4

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What is Dentin?

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Card 5

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In the salivary glands, what is the Parotid

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