Gaseous Exchange

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  • Created by: cassie97
  • Created on: 26-05-14 13:01
Gaseous Exchange
The process of oxygen reaching the cells and carbon dioxide being removed from the cells.
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Properties of a large surface area?
For the supply and removal of gases.
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Properties of a moist, thin, permeable surface membrane ( short diffusion pathway )?
For the speed of diffusion, as there is possible area for water loss.
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Properties of maintenance of a diffusion gradient?
To sustain the exchange process ( high -> low ).
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Properties of pigmented blood?
To increase the efficiency.
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Ventilation
Getting respiratory medium to respiratory surface.
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Why cant a fish be taken out of water?
Water supports the gill structure and so when a fish is taken out of the water, the gill structure collapses and cannot carry out gas exchange, suffocating the poor little fish.
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Each gill is composed of...
Two rows of gill filaments, with llamellae to increase the surface area.
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Llamellae are...
Highly vascularised and the blood is pigmented with haemoglobin. Gills therefore look pink.
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Where does gaseous exchange take place?
The gill plates, where the barrier between the water and blood is only two cells thick, giving a short diffusion pathway.
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Which flow do bony fish have?
Counter current flow.
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Which flow do cartilaginous fish have?
Parallel Flow.
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What benefits do internal lungs have?
They minimise water loss and heat loss ( as gills are no good out of water ) .
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Why are frogs 'halfway' between terrestrial and aquatic?
Half of their lifestyle is in water and half of their lifestyle is in air.
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The insect tracheal system.
Delivering oxygen without the need of blood, straight to the respiring tissue.
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Inspiration of lungs - Ribcage, Intercostal Muscles, Diaphragm, Volume of Thorax, Pressure in lungs, Air?
Ribcage moves up and out. Intercostal muscles contract. Diaphragm contracts and moves down. Volume of thorax increases .Lung pressure decreases below external pressure. Air rushes in.
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Expiration of lungs - Ribcage, Intercostal Muscles, Diaphragm, Volume of Thorax, Pressure in lungs, Air?
Ribcage moves down and in. Intercostal muscles relax. Diaphragm relaxes and moves up. Volume of the thorax decreases. Lung pressure increases above external pressure. Air pushes out.
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Leaves are:
Thin, have a large surface area, a transparent cuticle, and can orientate themselves to absorb maximum light.
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Palisade Cells
Elongated, densely packed and has many chloroplasts.
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Spongy Mesophyll
Light passes through, spaces allow CO2 to diffuse.
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Waxy Cuticle
Prevents water loss.
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Guard Cells
Change shape to open and close.
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The opening of the stomatal pores.
In presence of light, chloroplasts photosynthesise, producing ATP used by K+ to pump guard cells from the epidermal cells. Starch is converted into malate. Water potential lower in guard cells, takes up water by osmosis, cause stomatal pores to open.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Properties of a large surface area?

Back

For the supply and removal of gases.

Card 3

Front

Properties of a moist, thin, permeable surface membrane ( short diffusion pathway )?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Properties of maintenance of a diffusion gradient?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Properties of pigmented blood?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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