Gardner and Gardner Procedures

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What was the Gardner's research method?
Case study
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What was the Gardner's sample?
Opportunist- 1 female chimpanzee, caught in Africa, taken to US Air Force and then adopted at around 8-14 months old- taken to Washoe County.
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What environment was Washoe placed in?
Human environment similar to a deaf child.
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What kind of language did they try and teach Washoe?
ASL- built on her natural hand gestures.
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What happened whilst Washoe was awake?
Always a human with her, all humans around her used ASL, no one spoke around Washoe- allowed a close relationship to be built between the humans and Washoe.
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How did they encourage Washoe to interact with the humans?
Through play and fun
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How did they record the number of signs Washoe had learnt?
Recorded at different ages- Signs had to produced by Washoe spontaneously for 15 consecutive days and confirmed by 3 observers.
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Name four methods used to teach Washoe ASL
Imitation- getting Washoe to copy i.e "dog", Babbling- if she signed something vague, they'd sign back correctly, Operant Conditioning- tickling as a reward, Direct tuition- moving her hands manually to form a sign
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How did the Gardners adress some ethical issues?
Made sure Washoe was cared for and encouraged the way a small child would be.
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Card 2

Front

What was the Gardner's sample?

Back

Opportunist- 1 female chimpanzee, caught in Africa, taken to US Air Force and then adopted at around 8-14 months old- taken to Washoe County.

Card 3

Front

What environment was Washoe placed in?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What kind of language did they try and teach Washoe?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What happened whilst Washoe was awake?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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