G674; Methods Dictionary

HideShow resource information
Access
getting into the group you want to research, e.g. JT in venkatesh's research
1 of 50
Case Study
In depth, qualitative study of group/person/situation, e.g. alexander - asian gang
2 of 50
Content analysis
usually of the media e.g. poole - newspapers, hey - girls notes
3 of 50
Ethnography
Detailed qualitative study of one group/ a few individuals. aims to achieve verstehen. e.g. hey, abram, venkatesh
4 of 50
Ethics
Moral codes that govern research usually written by British Sociological Association Code of Ethics (Anonymity, Care not to Cause Harm, Informed Consent.) e.g. hey may have overstepped when giving girls excuses to skip lessons.
5 of 50
Fitness for Purpose
Sociologist chooses whatever method best suits their research, regardless if they are qualitative or quantitative. e.g. Joseph Rowntree Foundation
6 of 50
Focus Groups
Group Interviews aimed at discussing a list of topics. E.g. Pools, Joseph Rowntree foundation, phillipson
7 of 50
Gatekeeper
Someone who controls access to a particular group or situation. e.g. JT in venkatesh's study.
8 of 50
Generalisability
Ability to apply findings of research to other social groups, places and situations. Usually relates to the quality of the sampling.
9 of 50
Interpreting Data
Working the significance of the data collected in terms of research questions.
10 of 50
Longitudinal studies
A study that lasts a considerable amount of time, returning to the same sample many times over a period of years, used to see changes over time rather than a snapshot. e.g. 7up, the BHPS
11 of 50
Methodological Pluralism
Choosing a mixture of methods to get a fuller and more balanced picture of the group or social situations being researched. e.g. Gillies, Jacobson, Charles, Joseph Rowntree Foundation, Alexander
12 of 50
Non participant observation
watching group but not getting involved. e.g. Holden.
13 of 50
objectivity
The ability to avoid your personal values playing a role in the research process. e.g. Becker, Postman (objectivity impossible)
14 of 50
Official statistics
Statistics collected by the agencies of local and central government e.g. CSEW
15 of 50
Operationalisation
Defining a concept into a clear way so that in can be measures. usually involves a series of indicators, e.g. social class indicators include housing, education, and occupation. e.g. dobash and dobash definition of DV, Gillies 'cultural capital'
16 of 50
participant observation
Method closely associated with interpretive sociology which involves joining in with a group whilst oberving them, aim to achieve verstehen, e.g. Hey, Abrams, venkatesh
17 of 50
Personal Documents
Documents created in the course of their life by individuals, such as diaries. Qualitative, secondary data. e.g. hey - girls notes
18 of 50
Pilot studies
Short version of the whole research that is used to test out the effectiveness of the research tools, e.g. sampling and methods e.g. joseph rowntree foundation, noble and davies
19 of 50
Primary Data
Data collected first hand by the sociologist
20 of 50
Purposeful sampling
Picking a sample who fit your purpose e.g. venkatesh, skeggs
21 of 50
Quota Sampling
A sample which takes set amounts of chosen groups. it will not be representative.
22 of 50
Qualitative Data
Expressed in words, usually about meanings and experiences. e.g. Venkatesh, Abrams, Skeggs
23 of 50
Quantitative Data
Data expressed as statistics e.g. phillips and Bowling, BHPS
24 of 50
Questionnaires
List of questionnaires; can be self complete, or completed as a structured interview. usually involve closed questions. e.g. Noble and Davies, Charles, Holden, Venkatesh (originally)
25 of 50
Random Sampling
Ensuring everyone in the sampling frame has an equal chance of being picked. e.g. CSEW, Labour Force Survey
26 of 50
Rapport
A good working relationship between sociologist and research participants, needed to achieve validity. e.g. Venkatesh, Alexander
27 of 50
Reflexivity
The continual reflection of researcher with regard to their own impact upon the research, of particular interest to interpretivists who should be reflexive about possible values imposition e.g. alexander
28 of 50
Reliability
quality of data that can be replicated and checked. Usually easier to achieve with quantitative methods, e.g. CSEW, BHPS, Labour Force Survey
29 of 50
Representativeness
Quality achieved when the sample used is an accurate cross section of the sample population. e.g. CSEW, BHPS
30 of 50
Research Question
One or more questions which act as the starting point for the research.
31 of 50
Researcher imposition
The bias or values which a researcher brings to/ imposes upon the research. Leads to subjectivity. e.g. Dworkin, Durkheim?
32 of 50
Respondent Validation.
Asking respondents to check the findings/analysis and validate them. Used by interpretivists as a way of being reflexive. e.g. alexander.
33 of 50
Sampling
The process of selecting research participants from the whole sample or target population.
34 of 50
Sampling frame
A list of names from which the sample can be selected, e.g. CSEW + BHPS postcode address file. Philipson used a GP surgery list.
35 of 50
Secondary Data
Existing data that sociologists can use e.g. official statistics, diaries e.g. hey used girls notes, sutton trust, Phillips and Bowlin
36 of 50
Semi Structured Interviews
Interviews that have elements of both structured and unstructured interviews. Usually interviewers have list of topics to cover but there is flexibility. e.g. Jacobson, Gillies.
37 of 50
Snowball Sampling
Finding a respondent to start your sample and then asking them to get you contacts like them, often used when there is no sampling frame/hard to access groups. e.g. Charles, JT in Venkatesh study
38 of 50
Statistical Data
Numerical data, often provided in graph form. Usually comes from quantitative methods. e.g. CSEW, Sutton Trust
39 of 50
Structured interviews
Quantitative interviews, Usually involving closed questions. e.g. CSEW, Labour Force Survey
40 of 50
Stratified sampling
Dividing the target population into strata (e.g. class, gender.) then using the correct proportion in your sample in order to represent target pop correctly. e.g. BHPS, Phillipson (62% female, as 62% over 70 female)
41 of 50
Structured interviews
Interviews which are based on a strict interview schedule - a list of preset questions from which the interviewer cant deviate. e.g. CSEW/Labour force survey
42 of 50
Subjectivity
allowing bias or values imposition. taking on a position which is not wholly objective or value free. e.g. Becker, Postman, Venkatesh
43 of 50
Target population
Group your researcher seeks to represent. e.g. Jacobson- british pakistani youth, CSEW - all of england and wales.
44 of 50
Trends
Movements over time. e.g. Labour force survey ,BHPS
45 of 50
Triangulation
Using a combination of methods so that one method can check the validity of the findings of another. e.g. Jackson, Holden
46 of 50
Unstructured Interviews
Qualitative interviews that have no fixed list of questions their direction is controlled by a respondant. e.g. Hey, phillipson
47 of 50
Validity
The level to which the data is truthful and accurate and complete.
48 of 50
Value freedom
The ability to be objective,to put ones own values aside. e.g. Dworkin, postman
49 of 50
Verstehen
The ability to have empathy, to see life from the insiders point of view, become part of group you study. e.g. abrahms, venkatesh
50 of 50

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

In depth, qualitative study of group/person/situation, e.g. alexander - asian gang

Back

Case Study

Card 3

Front

usually of the media e.g. poole - newspapers, hey - girls notes

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Detailed qualitative study of one group/ a few individuals. aims to achieve verstehen. e.g. hey, abram, venkatesh

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Moral codes that govern research usually written by British Sociological Association Code of Ethics (Anonymity, Care not to Cause Harm, Informed Consent.) e.g. hey may have overstepped when giving girls excuses to skip lessons.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar Sociology resources:

See all Sociology resources »See all Social stratification and inequality resources »