G543 - Crime - Reaching A Verdict

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What was the aim of the Cutler study? (expert witness)
Investigating if hearing about psychological research from an expert witness would affect a jury's decision making, as it would cast doubt on the accuracy of the eyewitness testimony.
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What was the aim of the Castellow study? (attractive defendants)
Testing the hypothesis that attractive defendants are less likely to be seen as guilty, and that defendants will be more likely to be seen as guilty if an attractive victim is involved, as well as looking at gender differences in jury verdicts.
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What was the aim of the Pennington and Hastie study?(story VS witness order)
Investigating whether or not story summaries are true causes of final verdict decisions, as well as the extent to which story order affected confidence in decisions.
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What was the aim of the Penrod and Cutler study? (witness confidence)
Examining factors such as confidence that jurors may consider when evaluating eyewitness identification evidence.
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What were the percentages of guilty verdicts in the Pennington and Hastie study?
Both story = 59%, both witness = 63%, (prosecution) story = 78%, (defence) story = 31%.
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What was the aim of the Ross study? (video testimony)
Seeing if the use of protective shields or a videotaped testimony increased the likelihood of a guilty verdict, and investigating the effect of protective devices upon a jury's reaction to a testimony concerning credibility.
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What percentages of convictions were stated for the witness being 80% and 100% confident in the Penrod and Cutler study?
80% confident = 60%, 100% confident = 67%
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What was the aim of the Pickel study? (inadmissible evidence)
Looking at the effect of prior convictions and the role of a judge's instructions, examining the extent to which eyewitness credibility affects juror's ability to ignore inadmissible evidence.
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What did the Hastie theory of 1983 focus on?
The decision-making process of a jury.
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What was the aim of the Asch study? (majority influence)
Investigating the effects of conformity to a majority, when the given task is unambiguous.
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What happened in the Pickel study if evidence was ruled inadmissible and a legal explanation was provided?
Participants would be more likely to find guilt and be unable to disregard inadmissible evidence.
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What were the four conditions of the Pennington and Hastie study?
39 prosecution pieces of evidence in story order, 39 " " in witness order, 39 pieces of defence evidence in story order, 39 " " in witness order.
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According to Hastie's theory, what two factors are used to evaluate the selection of evidence?
Implications and credibility.
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What percentages of males and females found the defendant to be guilty in the Ross study?
Male = 38.6%, Female = 58.6%.
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How often did individuals conform in Asch's study?
1 of every 3 occasions, or 32%.
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How was the DV of the Castellow study operationalised?
The question of, "Do you think Mr Radford is guilty of sexual harassment?"
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What were the four independent variables used in the Cutler study?
Witness Identifying Conditions, Witness Confidence, Form of Testimony and Expert Opinion.
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What happened in the Cutler study if the conditions / Witness Identifying Conditions were good?
More guilty verdicts were given, with a descriptive testimony having an increased effect upon this and there being an instance of higher juror confidence in identification accuracy.
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What was the aim of the Nemeth and Wachtler study?
Investigating the influence of perceived autonomy (choosing where to sit at a table) and consistency on minority influence.
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How did the conditions of the Nemeth and Wachtler srudy differ?
In half of the groups, the participants were asked to sit down, with the confederate/stooge sitting at the head of the table. In the other half, the experimenter told everyone where to sit.
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How did the figure of compensation that the confederate suggested in the Nemeth and Wachtler study differ from the opinions of the participants?
Confederate = suggested $3000, everyone else = suggested between $10,000 and $25,000.
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What was used to determine the influence of the confederate in both conditions of the Nemeth and Wachtler study?
The difference between the original/individual verdicts and the later group ones.
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What was the confederate perceived as if they had chosen their own seat in the Nemeth and Wachtler study?
Autonomous, as well as being more consistent and confident when seated at the head of the table.
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Card 2

Front

What was the aim of the Castellow study? (attractive defendants)

Back

Testing the hypothesis that attractive defendants are less likely to be seen as guilty, and that defendants will be more likely to be seen as guilty if an attractive victim is involved, as well as looking at gender differences in jury verdicts.

Card 3

Front

What was the aim of the Pennington and Hastie study?(story VS witness order)

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What was the aim of the Penrod and Cutler study? (witness confidence)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What were the percentages of guilty verdicts in the Pennington and Hastie study?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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