G484 definitions flashcards

Absolute Zero
The temperature at which a system has minimum internal energy (-273*C)
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Internal Energy
The sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies of atoms or molecules in a system
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Newton's 1st Law
An object will remain at rest or continue travelling at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant external force
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Centripetal force
The net force acting on an object moving in a circle; always directed towards the centre
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Angular frequency
The rate of change of angle expressed in radian per second.
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Impulse
The product of the force and time for which it acts, the area under a force-time graph
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Radian
The angle subtended at the centre of a circle by and arc of equal length to the radius
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Angular displacement
The angle through which an object moves in a circle
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Newton's 2nd Law
The net force acting upon an object is equal to its rate of change of momentum
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Elastic collision
Kinetic energy is conserved. Momentum and total energy are always conserved
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Frequency
The number of oscillations per unit time (Hz)
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Amplitude
The maximum displacement of a particle from its equilibrium position
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Equation of state
Equation for an ideal gas. pV=nRT or pV=NkT
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Latent heat of vaporisation
The energy absorbed by a substance to change its state from liquid to gas without a change in temperature
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Linear momentum
The product of an objects mass and its velocities. p=mv
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Geostationary orbit
Orbit of an artificial satellite which has a period of 1 day. Therefore the satellite remains above the same point on the Earth's equator
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Velocity
Rate of change of displacement / change in displacement over time
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Phase difference
The fraction of an oscillation between the vibration of two oscillating particles
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Gravitational field strength
The gravitational force exerted per unit mass. g = F/m
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Simple Harmonic Motion
Motion of an oscillator where its acceleration is directly proportional to its displacement from equilibrium position and acceleration is directed towards the equilibrium position
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Newton's 3rd Law
When body A exerts a force on body B, body B exerts a force of equal magnitude on body A in the opposite direction
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Resonance
The forced motion of an oscillator. Max amplitude is achieved when the forcing frequency matches the oscillators natural frequency
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Charles' Law
The volume occupied by a gas at constant pressure is directly proportional to its thermodynamic (absolute) temperature
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Boyles' Law
The pressure exerted by a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to its volume, provided the temperature remains constant
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Latent heat of fusion
The energy absorbed by a substance to change its state from solid to liquid without a change in temperature
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Specific heat capacity
Energy required per unit mass of a substance to raise the temperature by 1K
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Inelastic collision
KE is not conserved; some is transferred to other forms. Momentum and total energy are always conserved
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Conservation of momentum
In a closed system when 2 bodies interact, the total momentum in any specified direction remains constant
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Newton's Law of Gravitation
Any two point masses will attract each other with a force proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of their separation
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

The sum of the random distribution of kinetic and potential energies of atoms or molecules in a system

Back

Internal Energy

Card 3

Front

An object will remain at rest or continue travelling at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a resultant external force

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

The net force acting on an object moving in a circle; always directed towards the centre

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

The rate of change of angle expressed in radian per second.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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