# Fundamentals of Programming Key Words

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Memory
The location where instructions and data are stored on the computer
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Alorithm
A sequence of steps that can be followed to complete a task that always terminates
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Syntax
The rules of how words are used within a given language
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A specific location in memory where instructions or data are stored
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Assignment
The process of giving a value to a variable or constant
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Constant
An item of data whose value does not change
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Variable
An item of data whose value could change while the program is being run
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Debug
The process of finding and correcting errors in programs
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Declaration
The process of defining variables and constants in terms of their name and data type
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Data type
Determines what sort of data are being stored and how it will be handled by the program
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Integer
Any whole positive or negative number including zero
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Pointer
A data item that identifies a particular element in a data structure - normally the front or rear
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Array
A set of related data items stored under a single identifier. Can work on one or more demensions
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Element
An single value within a set or list - also called a member
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Record
One line of a text file
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Selection
The principle of choosing what action to take based on certain criteria
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Nesting
Placing one set of instructions within another set of instructions
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Iteration
The principle of repeating processes
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Definite Iteration
A process that repeats a set number of times
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Indefinite Iteration
A process that repeats until a certain condition is met
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Loop
A repeated process
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Sequences
The principle of putting the correct instructions in the right order within a program
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Arithmetic Operation
Common expressions such as +, -, /, x
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Rounding
Reducing the number of digests used to represent a number while maintaining a value that is approximately equivalent
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Trucating
The process of cutting off a number after a certain number of characters or decimal places
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Random Number Generator
A function that produces a completely random number
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Pseudo - Random Number Generator
Common in programming languages, a function that produces a random number that is not 100% random
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Relational Operations
Expressions that compare two values such as equal to or greater than
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Boolean Operations
Expressions that result in a TRUE or FALSE value
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AND
Boolean operation that outputs true if both inputs are true
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OR
Boolean operation that outputs true if either of its inputs are true
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NOT
Boolean operation that inverts the result so true becomes false and false becomes true
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XOR
Boolean operation that is true if either input is true but not if both inputs are true
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String-Handling Functions
Actions that can be carried out on sequences of characters
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Character Code
A binary representation of a particular letter, number or special character
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Subroutine
A named block of code designed to carry out a specific task
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Procedure
Another term for a subroutine
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Subprogram
Another term for a subroutine
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Routine
Another term for a subroutine
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Local Variable
A variable that is available only in specified subroutines and functions
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Global Variable
A variable that is available anywhere in the program
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Event
Something that happens when a program is being run
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Module
A number of subroutines that form part of a program
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Function
A subroutine that returns a value
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Functional Programming
A programming paradigm that uses functions to create programs
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Parameter
Data being passed into a subroutine
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Argument
An item of data being passed to a subroutine
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Block Interface
Code that describes the data being passed from one subroutine to another
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Exception Handling
The process of dealing with events that cause the current subroutine to stop
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Procedural Programming Languages
Languages where the programmer specifies the steps that must be carried out in order to achieve a result
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Imperative Programming Languages
Languages based on giving the computer commands or procedures to follow
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Hierarchy Chart
A diagram that shows the design of a system from the top down
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Structure Chart
Similar to a hierarchy chart with the addition of showing how data are passed around the system
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Top-Down Approach
When designing systems it means that you start at the top of the process and work your way down into smaller and smaller sub-processes
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Flowchart
A diagram using standard symbols that describes a process or system
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System Flowchart
A diagram that shows individual processes within a system
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Pseudo-code
A method of writing code that does not require knowledge of a particular programming language
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Naming Conventions
The process of giving meaningful names to subroutines, functions, variables and other user-defined features in a program
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Dry Run
The process of stepping through each line of code to see what will happen before the program is run
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Trace Table
A method of recording the result of each step that takes place when dry running code
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## Other cards in this set

### Card 2

#### Front

A sequence of steps that can be followed to complete a task that always terminates

Alorithm

### Card 3

#### Front

The rules of how words are used within a given language

### Card 4

#### Front

A specific location in memory where instructions or data are stored

### Card 5

#### Front

The process of giving a value to a variable or constant