Fundamentals of Anatomy and Physiology - Chapter 1

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What is gross anatomy?
(Macroscopic) - studying anatomy that can be seen with the naked eye
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What is surface anatomy (gross)?
Study of general form and superficial markings
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What is regional anatomy (gross)?
Focuses on organisation of body
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What is systemic anatomy (gross)?
Studies structure of organ systems
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What is clinical anatomy (gross)?
Specialities important in clinical practice e.g. pathological, radiographic, surgical
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What is developmental anatomy (gross)?
Describes change that takes place between conception and adulthood - often crossed with microscopic anatomy due to growth
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What is microscopic anatomy?
Study of anatomy that cannot see without magnification
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What are the two subdivisions of microscopic anatomy?
Cytology and histology
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What is cytology?
Study of internal structure of individual cells
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What is histology?
Study of tissues
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What is cell physiology?
Study of function of cells
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What is organ physiology?
Study of function of organs
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What is systemic physiology?
Study of function of organ systems e.g. cardiovascular physiology
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What is pathological physiology?
Study of effects of diseases on organ or system functions
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What are signs? (Give example)
Objective disease indication e.g. raised temperature
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What are symptoms? (Give example)
Subjective disease indication e.g. tiredness
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What is the scientific method?
Question, hypothesis, collect data through observation and experimentation, conclusion
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What are the different organisation levels in an organism?
Chemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system, organism
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What is homeostasis?
Maintaining of stable internal environment (equilibrium)
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What is homeostatic regulation?
Adjustment of physiological systems to preserve homeostasis
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What is the two main homeostatic regulation mechanisms?
Autoregulation and extrinsic regulation
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What is autoregulation?
Adjustment by cell, tissue, organ or system in response to environmental change
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Give an example of autoregulation
When cells release chemicals to widen or dilate blood vessels to increase blood flow and therefore oxygen when oxygen levels decline
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What is extrinsic regulation?
Processes that result from activities of nervous or endocrine system - systems detect change, sends signals to counteract this
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Give an example of extrinsic regulation
When exercising nervous system increases demands to increase heart rate so blood circulates faster
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What are the three part of a homeostatic regulatory mechanism?
Receptor, control center, effector
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What is a receptor?
A sensor that is sensitive to particular stimulus or environmental change
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What is a control centre?
Receives and processes information supplied by receptor and sends out commands - usually nervous system
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What is an effector?
Cell or organ that response to commands of control centre - either enhances or opposes stimulus
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What is set point?
The normal value of a physiological variable (e.g. body temperature)
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What is negative feedback?
Increases level and bringing it down
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What is positive feedback (rare)?
Enforcing or building upon the existing
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What is thermoregulation?
Negative feedback example that controls body temperature
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What is the control centre for thermoregulation?
Hypothalamus (region in the brain)
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What two effectors are there in thermoregulation?
Sweat glands, produce sweat - muscle tissue lining relaxes so blood vessels dilate, increases blood flow to speed up sweat glands
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What factors can effect ones homeostatic set point?
Age, gender, general health, environmental conditions
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What % of the population are "normal" homeostatic conditions based upon?
95%
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Give two examples of positive feedback.
Blood clotting, childbirth
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What is dynamic equilibrium?
State of balance due to continually adapting physiological systems
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What is superficial anatomy?
Locating of structures on or near body's surface
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What is auscultation?
Action of listening to bodily sounds
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What is the anatomical position?
Hands at side with palms facing forward and feet together
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What is meant by anterior?
Front
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What is meant by posterior?
Back
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What is meant by supine?
Person lying down in anatomical position face up
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What is meant by prone?
Person lying down in anatomical position face down
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What are the four abdominopelvic quadrants?
Right/left upper quadrant (RUQ, LUQ), right/left lower quadrant (RLQ, LLQ)
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What are the six abdominopelvic regions?
Right/left hypochondriac - epigastric, R/L lumbar, umbilical - R/L inguinal, hypogastric (public)
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Left and right sides in anatomical descriptions are always those of the ____
Subject, not observer
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A slice through a 3D object is called a ____
Section
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What are body cavities?
A fluid filled space (usually then contains organs)
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What are body cavities lined with?
Serous membrane
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What is a serous membrane?
Smooth membrane made of 2 epithelial layers which secretes serous fluid
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What are the two layers of a serous membrane?
Inner - visceral membrane (closest to organs), outer - parietal layer (connective tissue)
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What separates the thoracic cavity and the abdominopelvic cavity?
Diaphragm
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What is the pleural cavity?
Thin space between visceral and parietal of each lung - i.e. they hold the lungs
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What is the pulmonary pleurae?
The visceral and parietal membranes
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What is the pleurae?
Serous membrane that lines thorax and lungs
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What is the mediastinum?
Contains chest organs except the lungs e.g. heart, thymus gland
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What are the cavities of the "cushioning" around the heart?
Visceral pericardium - membrane closest, pericardial cavity - gap in between 2 membranes, parietal pericardium - farthest membrane
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Wha are the two main functions of the trunk cavities?
Protect organs from shock and impact - Allow change in size and shape, e.g. for contraction
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What is a viscera (visceral organ)?
Internal organs enclosed by cavities
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What does serous fluid do?
Moistens serous membranes, coats opposing surfaces, reduces friction
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What is the visceral serosa?
Portion of serous membrane that covers visceral organ
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What is the parietal serosa?
Portion of serous membrane that covers walls/chambers of thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
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What are potential spaces?
Parietal and visceral serosae that are close in contact (and body cavities)
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What does the thoracic cavity contain?
lungs, heart - associated organs of respiratory, cardiovascular and lymphatic systems - inferior parts of esophagus - thymus
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What are the three main parts of the thoracic cavity?
Left and right pleural cavities, mediastinum
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What does the mediastinum consists of (tissue)?
Connective tissue - surronds, stabilises and supports esophagus, trachea, thymus
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Where is the pericardial cavity situated?
In the mediastinum
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What is the pericardial cavity?
Small chamber that surrounds the heart
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What are the two subdivisions of the abdominopelvic cavity?
Abdominal cavity and pelvic cavity
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What is the peritoneal cavity and where is it?
Potential space in the abdominopelvic cavity lined by serous membrane (peritoneum)
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What does the parietal peritoneum line?
The inner surface of body wall
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What does the visceral peritoneum do?
Covers enclosed organs in abdominopelvic cavity
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What does the abdominopelvic cavity contain?
Liver, stomach, spleen, small intestine, most of large intestine
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Where are the kidneys and pancreas? What name is given to these?
Between peritoneal lining and muscular wall of abdominal cavity - retroperitoneal
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What does the pelvic cavity contain?
urinary bladder, various reproductive organs, distal part of large intestin
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What is meant by infraperitoneal?
To describe organs that extend inferior to peritoneal cavity e.g. urinary bladder, distal portions of large intestin
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Card 2

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What is surface anatomy (gross)?

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Study of general form and superficial markings

Card 3

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What is regional anatomy (gross)?

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Card 4

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What is systemic anatomy (gross)?

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Card 5

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What is clinical anatomy (gross)?

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