Functionalists Perspective on Crime

  • Created by: FatCat3
  • Created on: 04-10-22 18:51
which sociologist talked about the 2 ways ro achieve solidarity?
social control
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how do they see crime?
as inevitable and normal
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what are 2 reasons why every society has crime?
-not everyone is effectively socialised
-complex modern society has loads of diversity in lifestyle therefore diff goals develop by itself
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what does Durkheim think modern societies are?
anomie (normless) so rules that govern behaviour become weaker
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what are the positive functions of crime?
.boundary maintenance- exactions from society of crime unifies society and reinforces solidarity
.adaptation and change- allows change to happen in society to sift norms and value as (not)/deviant
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what are other functions of crime and name the sociologists?
.Davis- prostitution acts as a safety value for mens sexual frustration to not threaten nuclear family
.Polsky- *********** channels sexual desires away from adultery to not threaten nuclear fam
.Cohen- warns institutions they aren't functioning properly
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name the evaluations of this
+can provide interesting analysis of functions of c
-just cut it does the, doesn't mean that's why it exists
-ignores how c can affect individuals ie victims
-c may promote isolation ie women being forced to say indoors after c
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what is one strain theory and who introduced it?
Merton- ppl engage in c when they are unable t meet socially approved goals legitimately, 2 keys:
structural factors- societies unequal opportunity structure
cultural factors- strong emphasis on success goals-
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continuing w previous card
-and less emphasis son how to achieve success by legitimate means
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what are the 5 different types of adaptation?
goal means
conformity- (normal) + +
innovation (gangsters) + -
ritualism (dead-end jobs) - +
retreatism (drug-taking)- -
rebellion (marx,MLK) -/+ -/+
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whats the American dream?
chasing 'money success' ie achieving goals by legitimate means ie working hard but reality is diff. for most disadvantaged groups, this causes strain and pressures them to apiece goals by any means
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name the evaluations of this
+merton shows how normal and deviant behaviour can arise from same goals
-over-represent wc crime
-deterministc of wc crime
-marxists say it ignores power of ruling class
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continuing w previous card
-assumes there is a value consensus ie everyone chasing money success
-doesn't explore crimes that aren't for monetary gain
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what are subcultural strain theories?
see d as product of delinquent s.c that have diff opportunity structures for those who are denied chances top achieve legitimately
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what is status frustration, who suggested it and what did he look at?
Cohen- d committed in groups and focuses on crimes not from monetary gain
looked at wc boys who faced anomie in mc dominated school systems, cuz of lack of skills and cultural capital, they are at the bottom of status hierarchy-
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continuing w previous card
-as a result they suffer from status frustration and want to achieve goals by illegitimate means to get high status
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what is alternative status hierarchy?
sc values are spite for those outside sc, goes against mainstream values ie attendance- truancy. offers boys alternative status hierarchy in which they can win and achieve status from peers
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name the evaluations for this
+offers an explanation for non monetary deviance
-Cohen argues wc boys start off by sharing mc goals and reject it when they fail
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which sociologists identified 3 types of d s.cs?
Cloward and Ohlin:
.criminal sc- youth do apprenticeships that follow criminal cultures which associates them to adult c
.conflict s.c- high population results in social disorganisation and illegitimate opportunities the-
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continuing w previous card
-only ones available so they take it
.retreatist s.c- those who are double failures as they fail to a achieve goals by legitimate or illegitimate means and turn to illegal drug use
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name the evaluations of this
-ignores crime of wealthy
-over-predicts amount of wc crime
-provides explanation for diff types of wc d
-assumes everyone starts with same goal
+major influence on theories of crime+gov policies ie Ohlin+Kennedy
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what are some recent strain theories?
achieving other goals then money success ie popularity amongst peers, desire of young males desire to be treated like a 'real man'
failure to achieve these goals results in delinquency
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what is the institutional anomie theory and which sociologists thought of it?
Messner and Rosefelds- focuses on the American dream. obsession. money success exerts pressure towards crime as ppl adopt 'anything goes' mentality to get wealthy, since economic goals called above others ie respect, there is free-market-
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continuing w previous card
which study supports this?
-capitalism and therefore a lack of adequate welfare provision
Downes and Hansen survey of 18 countries, found more spent of welfare=lower rates of imprisonment
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name evaluations for the whole functionalist theory
-too much emphasis on wc +ignores power of mc
+helps understand theories ie white collar crime ie tax invasion
-doesnt explore crimes such as mass genocides ie Rwanda
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continuing w previous card
-labelling theorists individual differences aren't looked at
+shows a load of sc responses
+actually finds out why crimes take place at all
+tries too look at the positive functions of crime all together
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Card 2


how do they see crime?


as inevitable and normal

Card 3


what are 2 reasons why every society has crime?


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Card 4


what does Durkheim think modern societies are?


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Card 5


what are the positive functions of crime?


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