Functional Particles and Electron Arrangements

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What is the charge and mass of a Proton?
1+; 1 atomic mass unit
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What is the charge and mass of a Neutron?
0; 1 atomic mass unit
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What is the charge and mass of an Electron?
1-; negligible
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What is a cation?
A positive ion (electrons are lost)
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What is an anion?
A negative ion (electrons are gained)
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What is an isotope?
Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass number.
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Define Relative Atomic Mass
Average mass of an atom divided by the mass of 1/12th of a carbon12 atom
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Define Relative Molecular Mass.
Average mass of a molecule divided by the mass of 1/12th of a carbon12 atom
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What defines chemical reactivity?
The Electron Arrangements, all atoms crave stability.
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What are the uses of a mass spectrometer?
1) Gives us information on the amount of isotopes an element has 2)Calculating the Ar of an element.
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What is vaporisation?
The heating up of a sample until it becomes a gas in the Vaporising Chamber.
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What is Ionisation?
The sample being bombarded by high energy electrons from an electron gun to knock off electrons to make cations.
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What is Acceleration?
The cations are pulled down the mass spectrometer through negative plates creating a positive beam.
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What is Deflection?
Electromagnets alter the path of the positive beam that is proportional to the mass and charge of the atoms.
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What is Detection?
Positive ions that reach the detector pick up electrons and create a current, the more positive ions the higher the charge meaning that particular isotope has a higher abundance.
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What does a vacuum pump do?
Take out the particles that aren't needed so they don't contaminate the sample.
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How do you know what the amount of electron shells are?
Rip off an electron, the energy needed determines the distance the electron is form the nucleus.
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What is ΔHi?
Delta heat energy ; determines the ionisation energy.
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Is it harder or easier to remove an electron when the atom is stable?
Harder.
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What is the inner shell referred to as?
n=1
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what does ΔHi # stand for?
The heat energy required to remove 1 mol of electrons from 1 mol of gaseous atoms to produce 1 mole of #positive ions.
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What is an ionisation equation for the first ionisation energy?
X(g) --> X+(g) + e-
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What bonds hold electrons in orbit?
Electrostatic bonds
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Why do electrons being removed from the same shell have slightly more heat energy when being removed?
Because you are removing electrons from an increasingly positive ion.
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Who many shells do the s, p, d, f shells hold?
s=2, p=6, =d=10, f=14
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Why is there a general increase across the period?
Electrons come from the same shell but the nuclear charge increases.
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Why is Boron lower than Beryllium?
2p is further than 2s so it requires less energy.
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Why is it easier to take electrons from oxygen than nitrogen?
Because oxygen requires minimum unpairing
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What is shielding?
Shielding is when the outer electrons are further away from the nucleus and so have a weaker bond, the electrons are easier to remove as a result.
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Card 2

Front

What is the charge and mass of a Neutron?

Back

0; 1 atomic mass unit

Card 3

Front

What is the charge and mass of an Electron?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What is a cation?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is an anion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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