French Revolution Causes (long and short term)

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How did war put France further into deficit before 1789?
-France had been at war for 20 years before 1783 and it was the biggest expenditure at the time.
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What did Calonne want to change in his reforms, and when did he propose them?
In 1786, Calonne proposed universal taxation, the abolishment of internal customes barriers, tax on personal wealth and property and for royal land to be sold.
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When was the Compte Rendu published, and by who?
1781- by Jaques Necker.
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Why didn't Calonne call the Esates General to pass his reforms?
They were considered too unpredictable.
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When were the Estates General called under Louis XVI?
1789
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What is a Compte Rendu?
It is a report of the state of royal finances.
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When was Jaques Necker dismissed?
1781
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Why wasn't the state earning much tax?
The wealthy first and second estates owned most of the wealth of France and were an untapped source of wealth due to their privileges.
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What were the Lettres de Cachet?
The king's right to detain someone for as long as he wanted without reason.
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When did Calonne propose making reforms that included universal taxation?
1786
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Who published the Compte Rendu?
Jaques Necker- Controller General of Finances before 1781.
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When was the Compte Rendu published?
1781
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Why did Louis XVI dismiss Calonne in 1788?
He was under pressure from the public and from royal courtiers that didn't like Calonne.
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How did the parlement try to achieve the calling of the Estates General?
They used their power of remonstrance and wouldn't allow ministers to borrow more money until they allowed it.
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What was the name of the minister in charge of Finances?
The Controller General of Finances
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How many members of the Assembly of Notables were there?
144 members (all hand picked by Louis himself).
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Why were the Assembly of Notables a let down?
They chose to defend their privileges so decided not to pass Calonne's reforms.
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When, before 1789 was the last time France had called the Estates General?
1614
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Who was Lamoignon and what did he do?
Lamoignon was the keeper of seals in 1787 and he published the 6 edicts which reduced the power of the parlement.
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What were the 6 edicts?
A documnet that reduced the power of the parlement.
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When was Calonne dismissed?
1788
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Where did members of all three estates meet in 1787, that in a way foreshadowed how future events of the revolution would unfold?
Grenoble
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Why did members of all three estates meet in Grenoble in 1787?
To oppose Lamoignon's 6 edicts.
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Which two men succeeded Necker in the role of Controller General of Finances?
Fleury then Calonne.
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How did Fleury and Calonne try to salvage France's debt?
They sold offices and tried to borrow more money.
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Who chose the members in the Assembly of Notables and why?
Louis XVI hand picked the 144 notables as he thought they would support him and agree to pass Calonne's reforms (which would have saved France from bankrupcy).
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When did the Assembly of Notables meet?
1787
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Why was there tension bteween Louis XVI and parlement in 1787?
Parlement wanted to call the Estates General but Louis was reluctant to do so?
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Where was there a lot of violence opposing Lamoignon's 6 edicts?
Dijon and Toulouse.
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Who was the Controller General of Finances between Necker and Calonne?
Fleury
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Who was summoned to make decisions about reforms for the first time since 1614?
The Estates General. They met in 1789 to vote for whether or not reforms should take place.
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Who did Calonne trust to pass his reforms, when they actually rejected them?
The Assembly Of Notables (met in 1787)
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Who was the keeper of the seals in 1787 and what did he publish that caused a lot of outrage?
Lamoignon - published the 6 edicts which reduced the power of parlement.
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Who wrote the Compte Rendu and when was it published?
Jaques Necker - published in 1781/
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How many edicts did Lamoignon introduce to reduce parlement's power?
Six
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Who succeeded Fleury as Controller General of Finaces and what did they do to try and reduce France's debt?
Calonne - tried to sell offices and borrow more money.
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When did the Assembly of Notables meet and how many were there?
They met in 1787 and there were 144 members (al hand picked by Louis).
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Why did Louis XVI hand choose each of the 144 members of the Assembly of Notables?
He knew them well and trusted them to pass Calonne's reforms. In actual fact they chose to protect their privileges and reject Calonne's proposal of universal taxation etc.
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What did Jaques Necker publish in 1781 that led to his dismissal in the same year?
The Compte Rendu - an innacurate report of the Royal financial state that suggested France was in surplus. In actual fact they were in extreme deficit.
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Which Controller General of Finances was dismissed in 1788?
Calonne
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How many members of the Assembly of Notables did Louis personally select?
144- Louis hand picked each member.
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Who published the 6 edicts and what was his job?
Lamoignon - Keeper of the Seals
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When was Lamoignon keeper of the seals?
1787
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What was the term given to describe Louis' right to detain someone for an indefinite length of time?
Lettres de Cachet
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Where was there a lot of violence in 1787 and why?
In Dijon and Toulouse, riots broke out to oppose Lamoignon's six edicts.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What did Calonne want to change in his reforms, and when did he propose them?

Back

In 1786, Calonne proposed universal taxation, the abolishment of internal customes barriers, tax on personal wealth and property and for royal land to be sold.

Card 3

Front

When was the Compte Rendu published, and by who?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why didn't Calonne call the Esates General to pass his reforms?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

When were the Estates General called under Louis XVI?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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