French Grammar

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  • Created on: 13-04-15 13:23
Meaning(s) of 'depuis'
For, since
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Meaning(s) of 'depuis que'
For
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What 2 tenses are used with depuis/depuis que for continuing events?
Present or imperfect
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What 2 tenses are used with depuis/depuis que for completed events?
Perfect or pluperfect
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What does depuis introduce?
A reference to a date, event or period of time
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What does depuis que introduce?
An event whose consequences are ongoing at the time it is being reported
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Negatives with depuis/depuis que are always what type of events? (completed or continuous)
Completed
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If the meaning of depuis/depuis que is 'for', which is the only one (depuis or depuis que) you can use?
Depuis
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Future tense endings
ai, as, a, ons, ez, ont
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Conditional tense endings
ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient
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3 times you would use the future tense
1. Describe event in the future / 2. Polite alternative to the imperative to give orders / 3. Equivalent of 'may' when the speaker is speculating about possible causes/outcomes (e.g. elle aura une migraine - she may have a headache)
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5 times you would use the conditional tense
1. Describe event which 'would' take place in future / 2. In reported speech to replace the future / 3. State something as an alleged fact / 4. As 'would'/'could' in polite requests / 5. Equivalent of 'might' when speculating about possible causes
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Why/when would you use the 'near future' tense (present tense aller plus infinitive)?
To express a greater likelihood of the event taking place
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NB. If the tense of the main clause is in the future, the tense of the subordinate cause is in the future - the same goes for the conditional tense
e.g. je vous réglerai dès que je recevrai la facture (I will pay you as soon as I receive the invoice)
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How to form the future perfect tense?
Future tense auxiliary of avoir/etre plus past participle
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How to form the conditional perfect tense?
Conditional tense auxiliary of avoir/etre plus past participle
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What constructions of the infinitive take de?
Impersonal constructions
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What constructions of the infinitive take à?
Personal constructions - describing a noun or personal pronoun
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À or de? C’était extraordinaire ___ le retrouver
de
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À or de? Il est plus simple que jamais ___ construire sa propre maison
de
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À or de? Il était difficile ___ déceler l’ironie dans sa voix
de
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À or de? Le permis (the subject) de construire est plus difficile ___ obtenir aujourd’hui que par le passé
à
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À or de? Sa voix était difficile ___ reconnaître
à
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Meaning of 'ne...jamais'?
never
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Meaning of 'ne...pas'?
not
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Meaning of 'ne...personne'?
nobody
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Meaning of 'ne...plus'?
no more/longer
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Meaning of 'ne...que'?
only
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Meaning of 'ne...rien'?
nothing
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Meaning of 'ne...ni...ni'?
neither...nor
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Meaning of 'ne...nulle parte'?
nowhere
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Meaning of 'ne...aucun(e)'?
none
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Meaning of 'ne...guère'?
hardly/not much/scarcely
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Which negatives go before the past participle and before the infinitive?
pas, plus, rien, jamais, guère
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Which negatives go after the past participle and after the infinitive?
personne, que, aucun(e), ni...ni, nulle parte
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Which 3 negators always come first when there is multiple negation?
pas, plus, jamais
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In which 3 situations do you use 'ne' alone?
1. In clauses dependent on comparatives / 2. After conjunctions / 3. In clauses dependent on verbs
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Example with 'ne' used alone in 1. a comparative
c’est plus difficile que je ne le pensais
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5 conjunctions that you can use 'ne' on its own after
avant que, à moins que, de crainte que, de peur que, sans que
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3 verbs that you can use 'ne' on its own after
craindre, éviter que, empêcher que
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What tense do you convert a sentence into the passive with?
The same tense as in the active sentence
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How to form the passive tense?
Appropriate tense of etre (same as in the active sentence), add past participle, add agreement (gender and number), add par or de
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What must you always always always always remember with the passive tense?
TO ADD AGREEMENT
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When do you use 'par' after the passive tense?
Generally with active things
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When do you use 'de' after the passive tense?
Descriptions/states, attitudes, feelings,
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3 ways to avoid using the passive
1. Use 'on' / 2. Use a reflexive / 3. Use se voir + infinitive (e.g. elle s'est vu décerner la médaille)
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Par or de? Joe a été accosté ___ un homme au cours d’une livraison de routine
par
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Par or de? Feu Monsieur le Maire n’était pas aimé ___ tout le monde
de
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Par or de? L’histoire de la ville avant le XVe siècle n’est connue ___ personne
de
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In what 2 situations do you use the perfect tense?
1. For completed actions / 2. For sequential actions (happening one after the other)
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In what 5 situations do you use the imperfect tense?
1. Actions without a start or finish / 2. Ongoing states or events that are in progress / 3. Descriptions / 4. Actions happening in the background / 5. Repeated or habitual actions
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Name the possible past tenses
Perfect, imperfect, pluperfect, past historic, past anterior
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In what 4 situations do you use the perfect tense?
1. When referring to a past event before another past event described by past historic / 2. In texts alongside past historic / 3. In a time clause (if main verb is in the past historic) / 4. With some phrases and adverbs
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9 phrases that are used with the past anterior
lorsque, quand, aussitôt que, dès que, sitôt que, des lors que, tant que, une fois que, après que
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What type of adverbs is the past anterior used with (and 2 examples)?
Adverbs expressing the idea of urgency (e.g. vite/bientôt)
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Meaning of lorsque
when
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Meaning of aussitôt que
As soon as
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Meaning of une fois que
Once
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Meaning of tant que
as long as
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Meaning of des lors que
as soon as
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Meaning of dès que
as soon as
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When do you use the past historic tense?
Completed events in the past that have no relevance to the present, written/very formal French, as a narrative in a story, for repeated events, for events that take a long time
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What 2 questions do you have to ask yourself to decide what past tense to use?
1. Is is in the present or past? / 2. Is it completed or continuous
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Tense used for events that are: present and continuous?
Present
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Tense used for events that are: past and continuous?
Imperfect
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Tense used for events that are: present and complete?
Perfect
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Tense used for events that are: past and complete?
Pluperfect
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Imperfect tense endings
ais, ais, ait, ions, iez, aient
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How to form the imperfect tense?
Present tense 'nous' form of verb, remove -ons, add endings
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How to form the pluperfect tense?
Imperfect tense of avoir/etre, add past participle, add agreement (if etre used)
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When do you use the pluperfect tense?
When referring to events occurring before events being narrated using the perfect/past historic
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How to form the past anterior tense?
Past historic auxiliary of avoir or etre, add past participle, add agreement (if etre is used)
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-er verb endings for past historic tense
ai, as, a, âmes, âtes, èrent
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-ir/-re verb endings for past historic tense
is, is, is, îmes, iîtes, irent
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-oir verb endings for past historic tense
us, us, ut, ûmes, ûtes, urent
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Formation of -er verbs in the past historic tense
Nous form of present tense, remove -ons, add endings
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Formation of -ir/-re/-oir verbs in the past historic tense
Take the past participle of the verb, remove the final vowel, add endings
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Stem of être in the past historic tense? What verb pattern does it follow?
f-, follows -oir
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Stem of avoir in the past historic tense? What verb pattern does it follow?
e-, follows -oir
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Stem of faire in the past historic tense? What verb pattern does it follow?
f-, follows -ir/-re
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When do you use lequel?
To replace an indirect object, only if the object is a thing not a person
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4 forms of lequel
lequel, laquelle, lesquels, lesquelles
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When do you use dont?
To replace an indirect object, when the preposition is de
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When do you use duquel?
To replace an indirect object (thing not person) instead of dont: when the preposition 'de' is part of a prepositional phrase
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4 forms of duquel
duquel, de laquelle, desquels, desquelles
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3 prepositional phrases you can use with duquel
à côté de, en faveur de, au lieu de
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When do you use où?
To replace a place or moment in time
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What to you have to remember when using relative pronouns?
You must make the verb agree - e.g. J’ai rencontré une collègue que je n’avais pas VUE depuis 1996.
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3 si-clause combinations
1. Present-future / 2. Conditional-imperfect / 3. Conditional perfect-pluperfect
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3 meanings of 'si' if it used to introduce an indirect question
If, whether, when
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Meaning of 'si' if it is used to introduce a hypothetical clause
If (CANNOT MEAN WHETHER)
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If si is used to introduce a hypothetical clause (what might have happened but didn't), what tense can you use?
Whatever tense makes sense
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the present tense?
Present --> Imperfect
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the future tense?
Future --> conditional
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the future perfect tense?
Future perfect --> conditional perfect
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the past historic tense?
Past historic --> pluperfect
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the perfect tense?
Perfect --> pluperfect
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What is the change from direct to reported speech when the direct speech is in the imperfect tense?
Imperfect --> pluperfect
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What do you also have to remember to change when converting from direct to reported speech?
Time phrases/adverbs (e.g. 'tomorrow' becomes 'the following day')
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N.B. REMEMBER TO ADD AGREEMENTS WHEN GOING FROM DIRECT TO REPORTED SPEECH
X
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N.B. The reporting clauses (e.g. dire que, expliquer que...) normally stay in the same tense in the direct and reported speech
X
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How to form the present subjunctive?
Ils/elles form of present tense, remove -ent, add endings
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Subjunctive endings
e, es, e, ions, iez, ent
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Subjunctive stem of faire?
fass-
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Subjunctive stem of pouvoir?
puiss-
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Subjunctive stem of savoir?
sach-
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What is the 'partially irregular' formation of the present subjunctive?
(NB. Follows regular rules for je/tu/il/ils forms) Take present nous form, remove -ons, add regular subjunctive endings (-ions, -iez)
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Which verbs follow the 'partially irregular' present subjunctive?
Boire, envoyer, prendre, venir, devoir, recevoir, mourir, croire, voir, tenir
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Present subjunctive conjugation of avoir
aie, aies, ait, ayons, ayez, aient
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Present subjunctive conjugation of être
sois, sois, soit, soyons, soyez, soient
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Present subjunctive conjugation of aller
aille, ailles, aille, allions, alliez, aillent
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Present subjunctive conjugation of vouloir
veuille, veuilles, veuille, voulions, vouliez, veuillent
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7 uses of the subjunctive tense
1. Personal feelings about an event / 2. Some verbs in negatives / 3. Presenting an event as unlikely / 4. Phrases for hypothetical situations / 5. Some time phrases / 6. Superlatives / 7. Indefinite expressions (qui que, quoi que...)
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List types of personal feelings that you use the subjunctive with
Doubt, regret, happiness, surprise, fear, sadness, want
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Which 5 verbs/phrases take the subjunctive when given in a negative form?
Dire, penser, croire, avoir l'impression que, il me semble que
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4 phrases that take the subjunctive when they describe hypothetical situations
Pour que, à moins que, bien que, pourvu que
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Meaning of pour que
so that
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Meaning of à moins que
Unless
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Meaning of pourvu que
Provided that
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2 time phrases that take the subjunctive
avant que, jusqu'à ce que (both meaning until)
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Superlatives that take the subjunctive
meilleur, dernier (last), premier, seul (only), personne, rien, le plus/le moins...
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4 'indefinite' expressions that take the subjunctive
qui que, quoi que, où que, quel(le/s) que
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Meaning of qui que
anyone
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Meaning of quoi que
whatever
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Meaning of où que
Wherever
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Meaning of quel(le/s) que
Whatever
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2 other phrases that take the subjunctive
Il est indispensable que, il semble que
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5 phrases that don't use the subjunctive
Il est probable que, espérer que, avoir l'impression que (in positive), garantir que (to guarantee that), vu que (given that)
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Meaning(s) of 'depuis que'

Back

For

Card 3

Front

What 2 tenses are used with depuis/depuis que for continuing events?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What 2 tenses are used with depuis/depuis que for completed events?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What does depuis introduce?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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