French Wars- The condition of the army

How were men recruited into the army? (2)
Volunteering, recruiting sergeants
1 of 60
How were men recruited into the French Army?
Conscription including foreign conscription of invaded territory
2 of 60
What are the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary recruitment?
Increased morale and obedience, smaller numbers
3 of 60
What are the advantages and disadvantages of conscription?
Decreased morale and obedience, larger numbers
4 of 60
What was the King's German Legion?
A group of foreign volunteers for the British Army
5 of 60
What proportion of the army was foreign in 1815?
1/5
6 of 60
When was the Militia Act?
1802
7 of 60
What was the purpose of the militia?
Protect the home front in the case of a French invasion
8 of 60
How long did militia have to serve for?
5 years
9 of 60
How many militiamen joined the regulars from 1805-15?
Around 75,000
10 of 60
Why were the militia no longer necessary after 1805?
The war at sea had been won, and Britain controlled the channel
11 of 60
Why did men join the army?
King & country, food & shelter
12 of 60
Why were men in the army encouraged not to marry?
Would leave behind destitute families if they died (no welfare state)
13 of 60
What were the problems with communal barracks?
Lack of privacy, disease
14 of 60
What did military training include?
Musket drill, marching, cavalry drills, no tactical training/use of initiative
15 of 60
What did Wellington call the army?
'the scum of the earth, who had enlisted to drink'
16 of 60
What made flogging a harsh punishment?
Extremely painful, normally public, often led to infection and death
17 of 60
What proportion of the British Army fought in France?
Less than half- the rest were in colonies, especially India
18 of 60
Why were officers often inexperienced?
Purchase system
19 of 60
What was required if one wished to join the artillery or engineers?
2 years of training at the Royal Military Academy
20 of 60
What was promotion based on in the artillery and engineers?
Seniority (age)
21 of 60
Why did the artillery and engineers need better training and officering?
Had very important jobs which could affect the whole army if done incorrectly
22 of 60
Why was the purchase system supported? (3)
Maintained social exclusion of lower classes, prevented abuse of authority as money would not be returned if officers were fired, prevented military coup
23 of 60
What were the problems in the infantry?
Poor training, poor leadership
24 of 60
Why was it beneficial for the army to wear bright red uniforms?
So the enemy could be distinguished from British soldiers in close range combat
25 of 60
What weapons did the infantry have?
Brown Bess smooth bore muskets
26 of 60
What were the problems with the Brown Bess musket?
Smooth bore (inaccurate), slow rate of fire, short range
27 of 60
What weapons did skirmishers have?
Baker rifles
28 of 60
Why didn't the whole of the infantry have Baker rifles?
Expensive
29 of 60
What were the benefits of Baker rifles?
Increased accuracy, longer range
30 of 60
What did skirmishers wear and why?
Green and black uniforms for camouflage to carry out raids
31 of 60
What were the roles of skirmishers? (6)
Attacking enemy patrols, causing disruption behind enemy lines, destroying bridges, killing livestock, small-scale battles, assassinations
32 of 60
What was the role of heavy cavalry?
Break through enemy lines
33 of 60
What were heavy cavalrymen equipped with?
Longswords, armour for defence against melee weapons, large, slower horses
34 of 60
What was another name used for heavy cavalry?
Cuirassiers
35 of 60
What were the names given to light cavalry?
Dragoons or hussars
36 of 60
What were light cavalrymen equipped with?
Light armour, sabres, light and fast horses
37 of 60
What were the roles of light cavalry?
Carry messages, engage in skirmishes, reconnaissance, escort duty, finishing off enemies
38 of 60
Why could only the rich join the cavalry?
Had to provide own horses and uniforms
39 of 60
What guns did cavalrymen use and why were they not very useful?
Carbine muskets- only one shot, as it was impossible to reload on horseback. Fired shrapnel-like bullets
40 of 60
How long were artillery crews trained for?
1 year
41 of 60
What organisation trained artillery crews?
Board of Ordnance
42 of 60
What was an artillery battery composed of?
6 field guns and a howitzer
43 of 60
What were the features of field guns?
Smooth bore (inaccurate), small and light, bouncing shot to maim enemies, explosive or round shot
44 of 60
What were the features of howitzers?
Timed canister shot to explode overhead and terrorise
45 of 60
What were the features of Congreve's rockets?
Shrapnel case shot, incendiary shot or explosive shell, inaccurate, 'screaming' whistles to scare the enemy
46 of 60
What were the benefits of Congreve's rockets?
Fast fire rate, long-range. cheap, could be used for signals, good for setting fire to enemy ships
47 of 60
When were Congreve's rockets introduced?
1806
48 of 60
Where did engineers train?
The Royal Military Academy
49 of 60
What were the roles of the engineers?
Built bridges, roads, battlements, and dug trenches
50 of 60
When was the waggon train founded?
1802
51 of 60
What was the role of the waggon train?
Logistics- moving supplies, ammo, and the wounded
52 of 60
Why was the waggon train abandoned in 1833?
Horses were expensive due to the need for food
53 of 60
Why was it a bad move to abandon the waggon train?
In the Crimean War, logistics was a severe problem
54 of 60
Give some examples of auxiliary troops
Drummers, cooks, medics, stretcher-bearers, batsmen
55 of 60
What were the 4 main tactics in the army?
Lines, columns, squares, skirmishes
56 of 60
Which strategy was favoured by the British and why?
Lines- could kill lots of enemies with minimal damage to troops- needed due to the small size of the army
57 of 60
Which strategy was favoured by the French and why?
Columns- had more men than the British and could act as a battering ram
58 of 60
Which strategy was used against cavalry and why?
Squares- the only way to prevent being outflanked
59 of 60
What were skirmishes?
Small-scale tactical battles, often to intercept scouts or cause disruption behind enemy lines
60 of 60

Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

How were men recruited into the French Army?

Back

Conscription including foreign conscription of invaded territory

Card 3

Front

What are the advantages and disadvantages of voluntary recruitment?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What are the advantages and disadvantages of conscription?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What was the King's German Legion?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all The British Experience of Warfare 1790-1918 resources »