French Revolution

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  • Created on: 09-04-18 21:49
Define Intendants
Officials directly appointed by and answerable to the crown who were mainly responsible for police, justice, finance, public works, trade and industry.
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What were Diocese?
An area served by a bishop. It is made up of a large number of parishes.
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What was the system of government in the ancien regime?
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Define Serfdom
System in which people were the property of the landowner.
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How many prisoners when the storming of the Bastille happened? Does this undermine symbolism behind the storming of the bastille?
7. Could be said that the storming of the bastille does not deserve such huge significance and symbolism in 'freeing' the prisoners since there was only seven.
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What was the taille?
Land tax, a direct tax on the 3rd estate.
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Name the main 6 taxes pre-revolution
Taille (land tax), Vingtieme (5% income), Capitation (Poll tax), Gabelle (salt tax), Aidas (food & drink), Octrois (goods entering a town).
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What did the first estate collect (pre-1789) from the people that funded the church?
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How many bishops were in the 1st estate?
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How many monks in 1st estate?
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How many nuns in 1st estate?
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How many lower clergy in 1st estate?
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What was the name of the annual charity payment that compensated for the 1st estate's exemption from tax?
don gratuit- 5% total income. Annual payment was stopped.
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When did the second estate stop paying tax?
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Define Venality
The sale and purchase of certain jobs which could be inherited by descendants.
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Define 'Guild'
An organisation that tightly controls entry to a trade
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Unpaid labour service to maintain roads
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13 high courts of appeal
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Between 1740-83 how many years had France spent at war?
20 years, significantly detriments economy
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What were the main features of the economic crisis?
1780s agricultural prosperity cut short: disastrous harvests 1778-1789,1781-2,1785-6 and 1787. 1788 experienced freak hailstones. There was in turn a lower demand for manufactured goods, more income spent on food and a significant increase in bread
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What % did production and employment in textile industry decrease by and why was this significant?
Fell 50% in 1789, and was significant because accounted for half of industrial production.
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Soboul- marxist or revisionist?
MARXIST- 'The bourgeoisie whose spokesmen elaborated a doctrine which conformed to their social and political interests'.
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What was Voltaire's cry? (the enlightenment)
'Ecrasez l'infame', meaning crush the infamous, in referral to the church and indicative of values of enlightenment not using religion to excuse lack of rational thinking.
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What was the system pre-rev. of collecting taxes?
Tax farming: farmers general being a company collecting indirect tax for the government. Paid state agreed sum and anything above was kept= gov. never recieved enough money to cover expenditure.
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Why was Turgot pushed into resigning initially?
He suggested nobles gave up privilages
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When was the meeting of Estates-General?
5th May 1789.
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How long had it been since last meeting of Estates-general?
175 years, they had met in 1614. Suggests outdated measure that pushed revolution further.
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When was the tennis court oath?
20th June 1789
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What did the tennis court oath decree?
all members took oath not to seperate until 'the constitution of the realm is established and fixed upon solid foundations', BAILLY.
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How many members of the 3rd estate pledged tennis court oath?
576/577, only Joseph Martin-Dauch did not.
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National assembly origins
Members of estates-general for the third estate began to call themselves the national assembly (later changed to the legislative assembly)
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When did the son of king Louis XVI die?
4th June 1789, 'plunging the king in to days of gloomy inertia which paralysed all ministerial activity'-DOYLE.
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beginning August decrees?
4th August
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Some changes as a result of August decrees included...
TITHES abolished, venality, financial and tax privilege abolished. Citizens to be taxed equally.
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When were the rights of man and citizen established?
AUGUST 26TH 1789.
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When was the nationalisation of church property?
2nd November 1789.
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When was the Civil constitution of the clergy established?
12th JULY 1790.
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When was the flight to Varennes?
20th June 1791.
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What date did Louis 'accept the new constitution'?
13th September 1791.
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Where/when was Louis XVI executed?
Executed on the plais de revolution, on the 21st January 1793.
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What happened on the 17th July 1793?
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When did the constituent become the legislative assembly?
30th September 1791.
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What was voted for on the 20th April 1792?
Voted FOR war with Austria (later most of Europe ¯\_(ツ)_/¯)
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When was YEAR I of the first republic proclaimed?
September 21/22nd 1792.
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When/why was the revolutionary tribunal set up?
18th March 1793, to try and counter revolutionary suspects.
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Committee of general safety- responsible for police and internal security, tribunal and surveillance committees came under its control.
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Who said that 'terror is nothing other than justice, prompt, severe and inflexible; it is therefore an essence of virtue'
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What was the Law of 22nd Prarial?
Trials simply to determine liberty v. death, defendants had no rights and 'enemy of the people' was overly vague.
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Name 3 features of the political terror
Watch committees; revolutionary tribunals; executions of moderates.
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Name 3 features of the economic terror
General maximum; wages fixed; grain requisition by the Armees revolutionaires (compulsory loan).
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Name 3 features of the religous terror
Revolutionary calender; priests forced to marry; churches attacked.
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When were Robespierre and his followers arrested and sent to scaffold?
9th Thermidor.
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What was the white terror?
Attack on ex-terrorists and those who had done well from the revolution by those who suffered. White was the colour of Bourbons- implying royalist reaction.
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What date was the Constitution of year III established?
22nd August 1795.
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Name three main features of the Constitution of year III
All men over 21 paying direct taxation could vote in primary assemblies to choose electors; Electors choosing deputies had to pay 150-200 says labour; rigidly seperated legislature and executive.
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Name three weaknesses of the Constitution of year III
Yearly elections promoted instability as majorites in councils could be quickly overturned; no means of resolving conflicts between legislature and executive; Councils could paralyse Directory by refusing to pass laws.
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What was the Verona declaration and why was it a reactionary document?
Louis XVI's brother proclaimed self Louis XVIII and issued Verona declaration to place himself on throne- but antagonised those who bought 'biens nationaux' and boosted those who favoured republic.
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Define Conventionnels
Members of the convention between 1792-1795
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What was the Babeuf plot 1796?
Gracchus Babeuf, editor of 'Tribun du peuple' disliked constitution, organised coup calling it conspiracy of equals- but was arrested May 1796 and executed following year.
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What were Mandats territoriaux?
New paper currency issued by directory (March 1796) and withdrawn February 1797 when worth 1% face value.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What were Diocese?


An area served by a bishop. It is made up of a large number of parishes.

Card 3


What was the system of government in the ancien regime?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Define Serfdom


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


How many prisoners when the storming of the Bastille happened? Does this undermine symbolism behind the storming of the bastille?


Preview of the front of card 5
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