Foundations of clinical practice

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Anatomical Crown
Part of tooth covered in enamel
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Clinical crown
Part of tooth that is visible in the mouth, above the gumline
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Root
Part of the tooth embeddedin the alveolar process (jaw bone)
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Apex
Tapered end of the tip of the root
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Apical foramen
The opening at the tip of the root (blood supply, nerves)
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Enamel
Protective covering of the anatomical crown
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Enamel
96% IOM Hydroxyapitite, 1% OM Protein, 3% Water
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Enamel
Covers anatomical crown of tooth
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Enamel
Meets dentine at AMELODENTINAL JUNCTION (ADJ)
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Enamel
Meets cementum at CERVICAL MARGIN or CEMENTOENAMEL JUNCTION
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Enamel
Bluish-white colour, Yellow-white due to underlying dentine. Semi-translucent
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Enamel
Crystalline material. Hardest tissue in body. Low tensile strength. Properties vary across the tooth surface
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Enamel
Enamel prisms run from AMELODENTINAL JUNCTION to ENAMEL SURFACE
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Dentine
Covered by enamel
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Dentine
Contains sensory nerve endings (fibrils)
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Dentine
Softer than enamel, allows decay (caries) to spread rapidly
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Cementum
Protective outer covering of the root
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Cementum
Meets enamel at the CEMENTOENAMEL JUNCTION
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Cementum
Connects with PERIODONTAL LIGAMENTS which anchor the tooth in the socket
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Pulp
Consists of blood vessels and sensory nerves - through the apical foramen.
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Alveolar process (jaw bone)
Surrounds and supports the roots of the upper and lower teeth
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Gingiva
(Gum) continual layer that covers the alveloar process
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Gingival margin
Line where gum and tooth meet
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Pits & Fissures
Grooves and shallow hollows. Thinnest enamel. Biting surfaces
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Upper
Maxillary
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Lower
Mandibular
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Anterior
Front of the mouth
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Posterior
Back of the mouth (touching cheeks)
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Primary denitition
Deciduous/primary teeth (baby) 20 teeth, 10 each arch. Molars-posterior. Canine/Incisor-anterior. ABDCE
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Secondary denitition
32 teeth, 16 each arch. Premolar/Molar-posterior. Incisor/Canine-anterior. 12345678
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Surfaces facing lips and cheeks
Anterior - labial. Posterior - buccal.
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Surfaces facing roof of mouth
Palatal
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Surfaces facing the tongue
Lingual
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Cutting edge of anterior teeth
Incisal
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Chewing surfaces of posterior teeth
Occlusal
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Midline
An imaginary line that runs between the central incisors
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Surfaces toward midline
Mesial
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Surfaces away from midline
Distal
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Mesial & Distal lying next to eachother
Proximal surfaces
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Dentine
70% IOM, 20% OM, 10% Water
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Cementum
65% IOM, 23% OM, 12% Water
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Accelular cementum
No cells. Formed first. From CEJ to ROOT APEX
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Cellular cementum
Thin layer, covers apical third of root. Secondary cementum.
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Pulp
Surrounded by dentine. Contained in rigid compartment. Soft vascular tissue.
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Pulp uses
Nutrients to odontoblasts. Sensory organ. Responds to stimuli. Mobilises defence cells (caused by bacteria)
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Periodontal ligament
Specialised fibrous connective tissue. Surrounds root area. Collagenous fibres.
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Proprioceptive input
Sensory, underlying knowledge of where teeth are in the mouth.
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Amelogenesis
Formation of ENAMEL by AMELOBLASTS
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Dentinogenesis
Formation of DENTINE by ODONTOBLASTS
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1st layer of mineralised dentine
Mantle dentine
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Anterior 1
Central incisor
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Anterior 2
Lateral incisor
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Anterior 3
Canine
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Posterior 4
First premolar
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Posterior 5
Second premolar
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Posterior 6
First molar
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Posterior 7
Second molar
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Posterior 8
Third molar
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Spaces between teeth
Interproximal space
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Primary prevention
No disease present, advice given related to potential issues
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Secondary prevention
Advice to minimise the progress and severity of existing disease
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Preventative treatments
Oral hygiene. Diet advice. Fluoride. Fissure sealant (plastic resin coating placed onto fissures)
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Periodontal treatment - Scaling
Removal of plaque, calculus and soft deposits
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Periodontal treatment - Polishing
Using prophylaxis paste to remove stains
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Indirect restorations- Crown
Fixed prosthetic, cemented on, designed to strengthen and restore functionality/appearance
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Indirect restorations- Inlay
Fitted into cavity and cemented in place
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Indirect restorations- Onlay
Fitted over the occlusal surface
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Indirect restoration
Veneers
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Prosthetic appliances
Dentures. Bridges. Implants
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Endodontics
Pulpotomy (Root Canal) Removal of coronal portion of pulp
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Cementogenesis
Formation of Cementum by CEMENTOBLASTS
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Brown striae of Retzius
Brown lines indicating variations in enamel production / deposition. Brown lines run from ADJ to enamel surface
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Neonatal line
Line that marks the disruption in amelogenesis at time of birth.
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Hunter-Schreger Bands
Broad dark and light bands which run from ADJ into enamel (approx two 3rds into enamel)
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Enamel spindles
Dentinal tubules extend into enamel. (found most commonly under cusps)
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Lamellae
Sheet-like faults that run vertically through entire thickness of enamel
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Enamel tufts
Pieces of incomplete mineralised enamel, extend from ADJ following direction of prisms.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Clinical crown

Back

Part of tooth that is visible in the mouth, above the gumline

Card 3

Front

Root

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Apex

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Apical foramen

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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