Fossils, Extinction & New Species

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What is a fossil?
The remains of plants and animals that lived millions of years ago.
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What do fossils do for us as humans?
They provide evidence for evolution and allow us to see how organisms have changed over time.
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What part(s) of an organisms will not decay?
The hard parts, eg. bones.
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Why might an organism not decay?
Because of environmental conditions, e.g. frozen.
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What are two ways in which an organism can be preserved?
1) Parts of organisms can replaced by minerals, e.g. shells. 2) Parts of organisms can be preserved in rocks, e.g. footprints.
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Explain the process of how an organism can become preserved in rock.
1) Organism dies and falls into soft mud/silt. 2) Organism gets covered in mud/silt. 3) This gradually turns to rock, encasing the body. 4) Over millions of years the hard parts get replaced by minerals - soft parts do not fossilise well.
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What is extinction?
When a species completely dies out and there are no more individuals left - the species has become extinct.
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Give four reasons why a species may become extinct.
1) The environment might change (slowly or suddenly). 2) Organisms might be eaten by a new predator. 3) Organisms might be killed by a disease. 4) A more successful competitor might move into habitat.
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What is a species?
A group of organisms that share similar characteristics and that can breed together to produce fertile offspring.
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What is geographical isolation?
When members of species become separated.
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What is genetic variation?
The differences between organisms/different conditions.
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What is natural selection?
The proven theory that the better adapted survive and reproduce.
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What is speciation?
When the two groups of organisms eventually become different species.
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Give three factors that contribute to the formation of a new species.
1) Mutations. 2) Isolation of populations. 3) Competition.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

What do fossils do for us as humans?

Back

They provide evidence for evolution and allow us to see how organisms have changed over time.

Card 3

Front

What part(s) of an organisms will not decay?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Why might an organism not decay?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What are two ways in which an organism can be preserved?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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