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  • Created on: 05-06-14 10:09
Thermal decomposition of baking powder
Sodium hydrogencarbonate -> sodium carbonate + water + carbon dioxide 2NaHCO(3) -> Na(2)CO(3) + H(2)O + CO(2)
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Making Esters
Acid + alcohol -> ester + water
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C(n)H(2n+2) No double bonds
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C(n)H(2n) Have a double bond
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Complete combustion
Hydrogocarbon + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + water
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Incomplete combustion
Hydrocarbon + oxygen -> carbon monoxide + water + carbon
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Catalytic converters
Carbon monoxide + nitrogen oxide -> carbon dioxide + nitrogen 2CO + 2NO -> 2CO(2) + N(2)
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Thermal decomposition of limestone
Calcium carbonate -> calcium oxide + carbon dioxide CaCO(3) -> CaCO + CO(2)
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At the anode
Cu (s) -> Cu(2+) (aq) + 2e- Oxidation, impure copper
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At the cathode
Cu(2+) (aq) + 2e- -> Cu (s) Reduction, pure copper
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Rusting of Iron
Iron + oxygen + water -> hydrated iron (III) oxide
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Acid + base-> ?
Acide + base (alkali) -> salt + water H(+) + OH(-) H(2)O
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Acid + carbonate -> ?
Acid + carbonate -> salt + water + carbon dioxide
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? -> Ammonium salt
Acid + ammonia -> ammonium salt
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The harber process
Nitrogen + hydrogen ammonia N(2) + 3H(2)< -> 2NH(3) at 450*c
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Energy transferred
Energy transferred = mass of water X shc of water (4.2) X Temp change
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Energy given out per gram (J/g)
Energy given out per gram = Energy released (J) / Fuel burned (g)
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Atom economy
Atom economy = (Mr of desired products / Mr of all products) X 100
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Percentage yield
Percentage yield = (actual yield / predicted yield) X 100
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What are the three components of paint?
Pigment - gives the colour. Binding medium - sticks the pigment to the surface being painted. Solvent - thins the paint so it spreads easily
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How does phosphorescent paint work?
The phosphorescent pigments absorb light energy and slowly release it.
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How is crude oil formed?
The remains of sea creatures from millions of years ago get buried deep in the seabed, chemical reactions happen and eventually it is turned into crude oil.
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What is cracking?
Heating large hydrocarbon molecules and passing them over a catalyst to create smaller, more useful fractions.
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What are polymers?
Large molecules in plastic made when smaller molecules (monomers) join together.
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Why do different types of igneous rocks contain crystals of different sizes?
Rocks that have cooled slowly (granite) have larger crystals while fast cooling rocks (basalt) have small crystals
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What is the crust and the outer layer of mantle called?
The lithosphere
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What is subduction?
When a dense oceanic plate collides with a less dense continental plate, the cooler oceanic plate is pulled under the continental plate. The subducted oceanic plate then partially melts and can cause volcanoes to occur.
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What is an igneous rock?
It contains crystals which are formed when molten rock solidifies, they randomly lock together to form a solid rock. E.g Granite
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What are sedimentary rocks?
Formed from the decomposition of material. E.g Limestone, formed from seashells
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What are metamorphic rocks?
Rocks formed from other rocks by the action of heat and pressure over long periods of time. E.g Marble
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How is concrete made?
Heat CaCO(3) (Calcium carbonate) with clay to form cement then add aggregate, sand and water to form concrete.
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What is amalgam and alloy of?
Mercury. Used for tooth fillings
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What is brass an alloy of?
Copper and zinc. Used for musical instruments and coins.
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What is solder and alloy of?
Lead and tin. Used for joining electrical wires.
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What do smart alloys do?
return to their original shape when warmed.
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Why are diamonds so hard?
Each carbon atom forms 4 strong covalent bonds in a rigid structure. it doesn't conduct electricity.
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Why can graphite be rubbed off onto paper?
Each carbon atom has only 3 covalent bonds which creates sheets that can slide over each other. This makes it a good lubricating material. There are lots of desolated electrons so it conducts electricity.
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What are fullerenes?
Molecules of carbon shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls. They can cage other molecules, this can help delivering drugs - for slow release.
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What are nanotubes?
Fullerenes joined together to create tiny hollow carbon tubes, which are used to make catalysts.
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Electrolysis of Brine: What gas is given off at the anode?
Chlorine gas
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Electrolysis of Brine: What gas is given off at the cathode?
Hydrogen gas
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Electrolysis of Brine: What is formed from the ions left in the solution?
Sodium hydroxide NaOH
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Card 2


Making Esters


Acid + alcohol -> ester + water

Card 3




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Card 4




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Card 5


Complete combustion


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