Evidence-based Medicine

Case study
These studies describe the experience of one or more people with the disease. Limitations: no comparison, variation in sampling, study population has been selected by researcher
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Case control
These studies compare patients who have the disease to patients that don't. It looks back to determine the frequency of exposure of risk factors present in each group. B: useful for rare diseases. L: confounding, suitable control group, recall bias
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Cohort
These studies observe large groups of individuals, record their exposure to risk factors and gather data going forwards. L: observational, no cause and effect, confounding, inefficient for rare diseases or those with long latency
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Randomised control
These studies randomly assign participants into an experimental group or control. It is used when uncertain about treatment or exposure can be modified. B: random, low confounding. L: volunteer bias, generalisability to other populations/environment
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Systematic review
A detailed and comprehensive search strategy of published literature for a clinical question/hypothesis
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Meta analysis
uses statistical techniques to condense the large amount of data from a systematic review into a single quantitative summary. The data obtained is used to demonstrate the magnitude of effects an intervention has between two variables
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Evidence based medicine
The use of current best evidence in making decisions about the care of individual patients
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Patient oriented outcomes
Outcomes that matter directly to the patient, e.g. morbidity, mortality, symptom improvement, cost reduction and/or quality of life
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Disease oriented outcomes
Physiological or surrogate outcomes, e.g. change in blood pressure
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Patient
P of PICO - the population group your patient sits within
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Intervention
I of PICO - the therapy, process or diagnostic test you are looking at
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Comparison
C of PICO - the intervention against which you are measuring your intervention
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Outcome
O of PICO - the endpoint of interest to the patient (Hard or surrogate)
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Efficacy
Whether a treatment gives the desired results in ideal experimental settings
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Effectiveness
The degree of beneficial effect in "real world" clinical settings
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

These studies compare patients who have the disease to patients that don't. It looks back to determine the frequency of exposure of risk factors present in each group. B: useful for rare diseases. L: confounding, suitable control group, recall bias

Back

Case control

Card 3

Front

These studies observe large groups of individuals, record their exposure to risk factors and gather data going forwards. L: observational, no cause and effect, confounding, inefficient for rare diseases or those with long latency

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

These studies randomly assign participants into an experimental group or control. It is used when uncertain about treatment or exposure can be modified. B: random, low confounding. L: volunteer bias, generalisability to other populations/environment

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

A detailed and comprehensive search strategy of published literature for a clinical question/hypothesis

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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