Formation Of Culture

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C U L T U R E
used to describe the beliefs, customs and ways of life a society or a group within society.
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EXAMPLE 1: W I L L I A M S 1983
defines culture as 'way of life'
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Sociologist: learning culture involves learning norms/values of society.
However, Woodward: culture of society is based on “shared meanings, values and practices”. associates culture norms/ values
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EXAMPLE 2, culture connects individual & society. MARSHALL
suggested culture socially transmitted not biologically, therefore suggests not born into culture , but learnt through people surround them in society
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V A L U E S
General standards or ethical principles which are ethically prized.
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EXAMPLE 1: Moral Values
refer to beliefs right/wrong. Provide general guidelines for behavior/ideals whats important.
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continued
Some values seen universal eg most high value human life/good health, other values differ between societies eg britain values democracy/wealth /love whereas African values community, relgion , respecting elders.
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EXAMPLE 2; sociologists disagree who decides key values of society & who interests operate.
FUNCTIONALISTS: shared agreement of values and form foundation of stable/ ordered society. MARXISTS argue values defined rich ruling class
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N O R M S
social rules which define the acceptable and expected ways of behaving in a given social situation. norms are more precise than values , essentially values put into practice , eg knocking reflect values privacy .
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EXAMPLE 1: where do they originate?
rooted in custom/traditions/value systems that gradually develop in society. Some norms not fixed eg: normal own mobile/ wear a suit to work. Whereas other norms are unchangeable; wearing seatbelt
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Continued
Norms crucial role in society as “social glue” by binding individuals together. Sociologists argue where norms come from tradition /dominant and powerful groups in society.
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FOX 2004 English Norms
English culture - drinking tea, owning a mobile tea was drunk during various occasions whether relaxation /dealing with trauma. Therefore to display a norm requires an action as it is a form of behaviour. Underlying social norms are values
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S T A T U S
can refer to the social position of people in society or it can refer to the ranking of individuals which is determined by the prestige or respect attached to their position. HEIRARCHY
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EXAMPLE 1: Ascribed status & Achieved status
GIVEN position in society: male or female, inherited roles.LINTON defined status as a position in a social system eg:child/parent. ACHIEVED: Some degree of control eg degree to become a teacher. achieved most important in contemporary uk
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EXAMPLE 2: Hieracrchy exists due to status
ADLER & ADLER 1998 peer power: found middle class white children in usa develop hierarchy in peers.Those higher status acted role models peers, friends imitate their behaviour, and high status control the group/ exclude some.
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R O L E S
Patterns of behavior which are expected of a person or group relating to their position in society.
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EXAMPLE 1 INFO ON ROLES
associated behaviour/status. all take on different roles vary according status, age/ society you live in. A student, a sibling, a friend are all roles which bring with them expectations.Doctors excpected polite/caring/scientific
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CONTINUED
roles developed through social processes, people are born into them.
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EXAMPLE 2 ROLE CONFLICT
several roles= role conflict.eg a student may have conflict with a part time job. sociologists argue role conflict is inevitable. The concept of roles in society shows responsibility of an individual if they can keep it/them
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H I G H C U L T U R E
refers to the cultural practices assicated with the powerful and wealthy elite or upper social classes.
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EXAMPLE 1: Upper class view.
eg: opera/literature/ fine art/ theatre. Supports believe activities special represent nations cultural herritage. Artistic/expersive they require high level education to appricate their value.
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EXAMPLE 2: High culture superior culture of masses LEAVIS
LEAVIS : 'elite, upper class' way of life , ascribed position/ High culture should be protected: SOCIAL CLOSURE. sociologists influenced marxist argue defintion high determined ruling class. Their taste determines what qualifies as culture
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P O P U L A R C U L T U R E:
refers to activities enjoyed by the masses.dominated by mass produced entertainment such as pop music/ soaps. Often contrasted with high , portrayed as shallow/meaningless. POSTMODS see it as increasing peoples choice regard lifestyles
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EXAMPLE 1: S T R I N A T I (1995)
argues media largely responsible for creating pop culture & its manufactured to create profits.eg x factor , as well as watching , download songs/ buys books and tour.
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NOTE THAT
Pop links with global culture because globalization has resulted in world wide spread of popular activities , shows like big brother exported to many countries.
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EXAMPLE 2: ADORNO MARXIST
see it as socialising the masses into a passive set values. Makes ordinary people obsessed with mass media/ celebrities deflecting attention from important matters
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S U B C U L T U R E
groups who share many aspects of mainstream culture but who also have certain beliefs/ ways of behaving
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EXAMPLE 1: A R N E T T (1996) metal heads youth subculture , heavy metal expression of alienation
study of youth subculture heavy metal fans (interviews and questionnaires). Found that engage reckless behavior/music= need for excitement/ sensation seeking
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EXAMPLE 2: THE CCCS MARXISTS : SKINHEADS 1970'S subcultural groups source of deviant behaviour
mod & skinhead youth subcultures in East End London dressed aggressively (docs/tattoos/piercings)symbolism defense of territory which they believed under threat ethnic minority immigrants/did this to resist capitalism in symbolic way/keep alive WCLAS
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C U L T U R A L D I V E R S I T Y
Culturally embedded differences within a society
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EXAMPLE 1: P A R E K H 2006 : Society can be diverse in Many ways.
1) When members society distinct way of life & still serving dominant culture (Gays and lesbians.)2) Some members rebel against central principles, rejecting dominant values. eg the environmental group "Reclaim the Streets"
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CONTINUED
3)Communal diversification, ethnic groups have long established communities that add to dominant way of life. eg london. Cultural diversity doesn't = decline homogeneity (cultural sameness)can be diverse & still have fundamental norms and values.
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EXAMPLE 2: E L I A S (1978) cultural attitudes towards the body
In the sixteenth century little sense shame/ delicacy about bodily matters. NOW=increasingly internalised ‘good manners’ and disciplined their bodies to act in a ‘civilised’ way.
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M U L T I C U L T U R A L I S M
refers to the co-existence of two or more ethic groups living together as part of a society . promotion of ethnic groups sharing equal rights/difference resepcted
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EXAMPLE 1: UK AFRO CARIBBEANS GILROY
uk eg, their culture was accepted/ celebrated every year in notting hill carnival. & how their ethnic group contributed to uk society food/ music
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EXAMPLE 2: BACK 1996 HYBRID IDENTITIES
study council estate london. discovered that young people had opportunity construct new identities through inter-racial relationships/cultural borrowing. tried cultural masks taking elements from other culture eg dress.
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CONTINUED
demonstrates UK's multicultural & different ethnicity accepted/ repeated
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C O N S U M E R C U L T U R E
the expression of culture through items brought by individuals. past 30 years increased emphasis on consumption
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EXAMPLE 1: L U R Y 1996 features consumer culture
1)wide range of consumer goods 2) shopping leisure pursuit 3) different forms shopping 4) debt norm 5) packaging & promotion big buisness
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EXAMPLE 2: ECOMIC/ CULTURAL ASPECTS
CULTURE= identity through the goods consume eg music/fashion/technolgy. ECONOMICALLY move from manufacturing to service based economy, PRODUCTION TO CONSUMPTION
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MARXIST VIEW
manipulated ruling class with false class consciousness, by consuming fuel power for capitalism
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G L O B A L C U L T U R E
all around the world people becoming part of one all embracing culture. Due to development social/economic global relationships.
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EXAMPLE 1 : PROGRESSION TOWARDS SAMENESS
some worried that homogeneous mass entertainment erode national/ethnic differences. argue global culture caused trend towards Americanizationn ( RITZER) 1996
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FEATHERSTONE GLOBALIZATION not GLOBAL CULTURE
[FEATHERSTONE] argues no such thing as gc as dont all share similar lifestyles more 'globalization of culture' where culture boundaries dispersed
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EXAMPLE 2: GIDDENS: various factors create global culture
TV: brings uk/usa tv through world daily , GLOBAL ECONOMY , factories/ management TECHNOLOGY/ INTERNATIONAL ORGANISATIONS
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EXAMPLE 1: W I L L I A M S 1983

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defines culture as 'way of life'

Card 3

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Sociologist: learning culture involves learning norms/values of society.

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Card 4

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EXAMPLE 2, culture connects individual & society. MARSHALL

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Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

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V A L U E S

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