Formation

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What is the debate for the formation of relationships?
It is debated whether we form a relationship using cognitive factors (Social Exchange Theory; SET, Thibaut and Kelly) or behavioural factors (Reward and Need for Satisfaction model; RN, Byrne and Clore).
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Outline the reward and need for satisfaction model
Fulfil needs and provide with satisfaction, directly (operant conditioning-Skinner) rewarding in themselves (humour) and indirectly (Classical Conditioning- Pavlov) associate with pleasurable events- will not form with someone who is punishing
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What did Griffiff and Guay do?
Griffiff and Guay found that participants rated an experimenter more positively if he had praised them for their performance in the task.
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What did Argyle do?
Argyle found that individuals who showed most reinforcing characteristics were most liked (e.g. Smiling).
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What is a strength of the RN?
Parsimonious- it provides a justifiably simplistic explanation of the formation of relationships, which is supported by research by Griffiff and Guay.
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What is a weakness of the research for the RN?
Low internal validity- does not successfully measure relationship formation but instead more closely investigated liking or attraction, which are relevant to but not the same as relationship formation.
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What is a weakness of the research for the RN?
Unscientific- it is impossible to actually test its predictions as relationships cannot be formed in experimental conditions.
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Outline Social Exchange Theory
Anticipated future benefits outweigh costs, on comparison levels (relationship itself), comparison level for alternatives (family/friends), look for positive pay off matrix
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What did Rusbult do?
Rusbult found that costs and benefits are ignored in the ‘honeymoon phase’.
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What is a criticism of SET?
Simplistic- ignores important influences. Duck- ignores the influence of family pressures in decision to form a relationship. Argyle- ignores non-verbal factors (smiling)
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What is a criticism of SET?
Unfalsifiable- cannot be tested using an I.V or D.V. You cannot test private cognitive thoughts about the costs and benefits of relationship formation. Argued by Argyle, who has criticised the artificial methods used to measure costs and benefits
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What is the conclusion for the formation of relationships?
Both theories=compelling, overwhelming evidence against cognitive factors, likely that we form a relationship through Behavioural factors and use Cognitive factors in the later stages, due to excitement, unlikely to think about costs and benefits
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Card 2

Front

Outline the reward and need for satisfaction model

Back

Fulfil needs and provide with satisfaction, directly (operant conditioning-Skinner) rewarding in themselves (humour) and indirectly (Classical Conditioning- Pavlov) associate with pleasurable events- will not form with someone who is punishing

Card 3

Front

What did Griffiff and Guay do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What did Argyle do?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

What is a strength of the RN?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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