forensics ; psychological explanations ; cognitive explanations

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who was first to apply this concept to criminal behaviour?
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he proposed people's decisions and judgements on issues of right and wrong can be summarised in?
stage theory of moral development
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the higher the stage?
the more sophisticated the reasoning
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kohlberg based theory on people's responses to?
moral dilemma
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many studies have suggested criminals tend to show?
lower level of moral reasoning
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kohlberg used moral dilemma technique and found what about group of violent youths?
significantly lower in moral development than non-violent
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even after controlling for?
social background
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- kohlberg's model and criminality
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criminal offenders more likely to be classified @ what level?
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whereas non-criminals progressed to?
conventional level +
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preconventional level is characterised by?
need to avoid punishment and get rewards
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associatied with what reasoning?
less mature and childlike
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thus what will happen to adults at this level?
may commit crime if they can get away with it / gain rewards
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assumption supported by studies that suggest what about offenders?
more egocentric / poorer social perspective-taking skills
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individuals who reason at higher levels tend to do what more?
sympathise with rights of others / more conventional behavours like honesty / generosity . non-violence
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- cognitive distortions
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what are they?
errors / biases in people's information processing system characterised by faulty thinking
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we all occasionally show evidence of them when doing what?
explaining own behaviour
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but research has linked this to what?
way criminals interpret other ppls behaviour / justify own actions
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two examples of cognitive distortions are?
hostile attribution bias / minimalisation
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+ hostile attribution bias
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evidence suggest propensity for violenc often associated with tendency to?
misinterpret others' actions
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in other words assuming?
people are confrontational when they aren't
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offenders may misread non-aggressive cues and trigger?
disproportionate violent response
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schoneberg and justye studied how many violent offenders?
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and presented them with images of?
emotionally ambiguous facial expressions
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when compared with non-aggressive matched control group what were results?
offenders significantly more likely to preceive images angry and hostile
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roots of this may be?
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dodge and frame showed children a video clip of?
ambiguous provocation
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children who had been identified as aggressive and rejected prior to study interpreted mroe hostile than those classed?
non-aggressive and accepted
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+ minimalisation
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an attempt to do what?
deny / downplay seriousness of an offence
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and has been elsewhere referred to as application of?
euphemistic label for behaviour by bandura
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for instance burglars may describe themselves as doing what o minimise seriousness of offences?
doing a job / supporting my family
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studies suggest individuals that commit what kind of offences particularly prone to minimalisation?
sexual offences
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barbaree studied how many incarcerated rapists?
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and found what % denied any offence?
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and further what % minimised harm?
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******* and hashmall reported what % sample of child molesters argued crime was non-sexual?
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and said they were just?
being affectionate
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and what % stated victim had consented?
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:) level of moral reasoning evidence
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palmer and hollin compared moral reasoning between which 3 grps?
female non-offendes / male non-offenders / convicted offenders
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how many female non-offenders?
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and male non-ffenders?
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and convicted offenders?
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using what apparatus?
Socio-Moral reflection measure-short form (SRM-SF)
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which contains how many moral dilemma related questions?
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what was the result?
delinquent group showed less moral reasoning than non-delinquent
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is this consistent with kohlberg's predictions?
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blackburn suggests delinquents may show this poor moral reasoning why?
lack role playing opportunities in childhood
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therefore what sbould be provided?
opportunities to develop moral reasoning
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:( alternative theories of moral reasoning
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gibbs proposed revised version of theory comprising two levels of reasoning which are?
mature / immature
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in first level moral decisions are guided by?
avoidance of punishment and personal gain
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and in second level?
empathy / social justice / ones own conscience
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stages are equivalent to which two kohlberg level?
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why did gibbs say post should be abandined?
culturally biased
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and didn't represent what?
natural maturation of cog development
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this supported by piaget's theory of moral development which suggests?
child-like reasoning is self centres and egocentric
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which deos what as get older?
gives way to empathy and concern for needs of others
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:) application of research
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understanding of cognitive distortions has proven beneficial in?
treatment of criminal behaviour
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CBT is dominant approach in rehabilitation of?
sex offenders
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which encourages offenders to do what?
face up to what they've done and est less distorted view of actions
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studies suggest that reduced incidence of denial and minimalisation in therapy is highly correlated to?
rieduced risk of reoffending
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and this is a key feature of?
anger mamangement
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:( individual differences
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level of moral reasoning may depend on?
type of offence
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thornton and reid found what about individuals who committed crimes for financial gain?
more likely to show preconv moral reasoning than those convicted of impulsive crimes
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where what tended not to be evident?a
any reasoning @ all
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pre moral reasoning tends to be associated with what kinds of crimes?
those which offenders believe they ahve a good chance of evading punishment
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langdon et al suggested what may be a better predictor of criminality than moral reasoning?
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this would explain what finding?
groups of people w/ v low intelligence less likely to committ crime
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lower levels of moral reasoning
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:( descriptive not explanatory
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good @ describing criminal mind but worse at?
explaining it
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cognitive explanations are essentially what kind of theories?
'after the fact'
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and though may be useful when predicting what?
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tend not to give much waht?
insight into why committ crime
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


who was first to apply this concept to criminal behaviour?



Card 3


he proposed people's decisions and judgements on issues of right and wrong can be summarised in?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


the higher the stage?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


kohlberg based theory on people's responses to?


Preview of the front of card 5
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