forensics ; offender profiling ; bottom-up approach

THE BOTTOM-UP APPROACH
DFGD
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what is the aim?
generate picture of offender
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through
systematica analysis of evidence of crime scene
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unlike top-down it doesn;t ebgin with?
fixed typologies
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instead profice is 'data driven' and emerges as what happens?
investigator engages deeper and more rigorous scrutiny of details of offence
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which approach is more grounded in psych theory?
bottom-up
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- investigative psychology
dfgdfg
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discipline is an attempt to do what?
apply statistical procedures alongside psychological theory
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what is the aim in relation to offender profiling?
establish patterns of behaviour likely to occur or co-exist across crime scenes
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this is in order to do what?
develop statistical 'database; which then acts as baseline for comparison
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specific details of offence / related offences then cna be matched against this database for?
revealing important details about offender personal history etc
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may also determine what about series of offences?
whether linked and committed by same person
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central to approach is concept of?
interpersonal coherence
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what is interpersonal coherence?
they way an offender behaves @ scene including interaction w/ victim may reflect everyday behaviour
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significance of what is also a key variable?
time and place
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as in geog profining which may indicate what?
where offender is living
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finally what does forensic awareness describe?
indiviuals subject to previous interrogation - behaviour may denote how mindful they are of covering tracks
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- geographical profiling
sdgd
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uses information to do with location of linked crime scenes to do what?
make inferences about likely home / operational base of offender
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this is known as?
crime mapping
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can also be used in conjunction with psych theory to do what?
create hypotheses about how offender is thinking awa modus operandi
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what is the assumption here?
serial offenders will restrict 'work; to geog areas they're familiar with
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and so understanding spatial pattern of behaviour provides investigators with?
centre of gravity likely to include offenders base
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may also help investigators do what?
make educated guesses about where offender is lilely to strike next
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called the?
jeopardy surface
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what and who proposed two models of offender behaviour?
canter's circle theory
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what are these two models called?
the marauder / the commuter
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what is the marauder?
those that operate in close proximity to home base
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and commuter?
those likely to have travelled a distance from usual residence
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crucailly though pattern of offending is likely to form what?
circle around usual residence
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and this comes more apparent?
the more offences there are
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such spatial decision making can offer investigative team what?
important insight into nateure of offence
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EVALUATION
DFGD
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:) evidence supports investigative pych
dfgdg
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canter and heritage conducted content analysis of how many sexual assault cases?
66
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data examined using what statistical technique?
smallest space analysis
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a computer programme that does what?
identifies correlations across patterns of behaviour
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several characteristics identified common in most cases like?
use of impersonal alng / lack reaction ot victim
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these characteristics will occur in fifferent patterns for?
different individuals
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this can lead to understanding fo what?
how offender's behaviour may change over series of offences
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or in establishing what?
whether two or more offences were committed by same person
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this supports usefulness of investigative psych why?
shows how stats techniqeus can be applied
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:) evidence supports geographical profiling
dgd
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lundrigan and canter collated info from how many murder cases w/ serial killers in us?
120
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smalles space analysis revaled what?
spatial consistency in behaviour of killers
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location of each body disposal site was in a different direction frm prev creating what?
centre of gravity
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offenders base invariably located where?
centre of pattern
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effect more moticeable for offenders who travelled short distances or?
marauders
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this supports which of canter's claims?
spatial info is key factor in determining base of offender
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:) scientific basis
dfgd
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bottom-up approach more objective and scientific why?
grounded in evidence and psych theory
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and less driven by?
speculation and hunches
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with aid of advanced artificial intelligence investigators are able to do what?
manipulate geographical / biographical / psych data quickly to produce insights and results that assist in inv
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field of investigative psych has recently expanded to include areas like?
suspect interviewing / exam material in court
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which supports what?
utility in all aspects of judicial process
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EVALUATION EXTRA
DGDFG
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:) wider application
dfgdf
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advantage over etop down is?
can be applied to range of offences
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techniques such as which two can be used in inv crimes like burglary and theft?
smalles space analysis / invstigation of crimes
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:( mixed results for profiling
dfgdfg
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copson surveyed how many police forces?
48
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and found adive provided by profiler judged 'useful' in what % cases?
83%
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in what % did it lead to accurate identification of offender?
3%
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kocsis et al found who produced more accurate offender profile on solved murder case than experienced sr detectives?
chemistry students
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

what is the aim?

Back

generate picture of offender

Card 3

Front

through

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

unlike top-down it doesn;t ebgin with?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

instead profice is 'data driven' and emerges as what happens?

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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