forensics ; dealing with offending behaviour ; custodial sentencing

1 of 79
- aims
2 of 79
custidial sentencing involves?
convicted offender spending time in prison / closed institution
3 of 79
what are the four main reasons for doing this?
deterrence / incapacitation / retribution / rehabilitation
4 of 79
1. deterrence
5 of 79
unpleasant prison designed to do wat?
put off individual / society from engaging in offended behaviour
6 of 79
works on two levels which are?
general deterrence / individual deterrence
7 of 79
general deterrece aims to?
send broad message to members of society that crime wont be tolerated
8 of 79
and individual deterrence?
prevent individual from repeating same crim in light of experience
9 of 79
in other words view based on which behaviourist idea?
conditioning through punishment
10 of 79
2. incapacitation
11 of 79
offender taken out of society why?
prevent from reoffending as means of protecting the public
12 of 79
need for incapacitation likely to depend upon
severity of offence / offender nature
13 of 79
for instance individuals in society will require more protection from serial killer than?
elderly person refusing to pay council tax
14 of 79
3. retribution
15 of 79
society is enacting revenge for crime how?
making offender suffer
16 of 79
level of suffereing should be proportionate to?
seriousness of the crime
17 of 79
based on what biblical notion?
an eye for an eye
18 of 79
thit the offneder should?
pay for actions
19 of 79
many people see what as best possible option in this sense?
20 of 79
and alternatives to prison are criticised as?
soft options
21 of 79
4. rehabilitation
22 of 79
many commentatiors contraty to retribution would see main objective of prison to be?
to reform
23 of 79
upon release offenders should leave prison how?
better adjusted and ready to take back place in society
24 of 79
prison should provide opportunities to do what?
develop skills / training or access treatment programmes for drug addiction
25 of 79
as well as give offender chance to?
reflect on their crime
26 of 79
- psychological effects of custodial sentencing
27 of 79
+ stress and depression
28 of 79
rates of what are considerably higher in prison than general population?
suicide / self-mutilation / self-harm
29 of 79
stress of prison also increases risk of what after release?
psychological disturbance
30 of 79
+ institutionalisation
31 of 79
what have inmates adapted to?
norms of prison life
32 of 79
and may become so accustomed to these that?
no longer able to function on outside
33 of 79
+ prisonisation
34 of 79
refers to what?
way prisoners are socialised into adopting 'inmate code'
35 of 79
behaviour that may be considered unacceptable outside can be viewed?
encouraging and rewarding inside
36 of 79
- problem of recidivism
37 of 79
what does this refer to?
38 of 79
stats produced by MoJ in '13 suggest what % offendersin uk will reoffend w/in a year?
39 of 79
in 2k7 14 prisons in E/W recorded reoffending rates of over?
40 of 79
where has the lowest offending rates in europe?
norway (ja bare hygellig)
41 of 79
what are norwegian prisons like?
open and greater emphasis on rehabilitation
42 of 79
however many commentators critical why?
soft option with insufficient punishment
43 of 79
44 of 79
:) ev for psychological effects
45 of 79
bartol sugested for many offenders prison can be?
brutal / demeaning / generally devastating
46 of 79
in lat 20yrs suicide rates how many times higher in prisons than general population?
47 of 79
who are the most at risk?
young single men w/in 24hrs confinement
48 of 79
recent study conducted byprison reform trust looked into?
% pps reporting symptoms indicative of psychosis
49 of 79
what % women?
50 of 79
and men?
51 of 79
would seem this oppressve prison regime may trigger?
psych disorders in those vulnerable
52 of 79
suggests custidial sentencing is not effective in doing which of 4?
53 of 79
particularly those who are?
psychologically vulnerable
54 of 79
:( individual differences
55 of 79
what cannot be assumed about all offenders?
they'll react to prison in the same way
56 of 79
why are there likely to be wide variations in experience?
different prisons have different regimes
57 of 79
what three things may all be important mitigating factors?
reason for incarceration / prev experience of prison / length sentence
58 of 79
many of these convicted may have wat at time convicted?
pre-existing psych / emo difficulties
59 of 79
therefore its v difficult to do what?
make general conclusions that apply to erry prisoner / erry prison
60 of 79
:) opps for training / treatment
61 of 79
rehabilitation model based on wha argument?
offenders may become better in time in prison
62 of 79
and improved character measn they're able to do what?
lead crime-free life when back in society
63 of 79
what increases chances of employment upon release?
access education and training
64 of 79
also treatment programmes like what may give offenders insight into behaviour?
anger mamagement / social skills training
65 of 79
which reduces likelihood of?
66 of 79
this suggests prison maybe worthwile assuming?
offenders able tp access schemes
67 of 79
that said prisons may lack what?
resources to provide these programmes
68 of 79
and even when they can what isn't conclusive?
evidence to support long term benefits
69 of 79
70 of 79
:( universities for crime
71 of 79
alongside legit skills offender may acquire in prison what may also happen?
dubious ;education' in sentence
72 of 79
incarceration with hardened criminals may do what with younger inmates?
give opportunity to learn the 'tricks of the trade'
73 of 79
this may undermine attempts to do what?
74 of 79
and make what rates higher>
75 of 79
:( alternatives to custodial sentencing
76 of 79
davies and raymond concluded what in review of custodial sentencing>?
gov ministers often exaggerate benefits of prison just to look tough on crime
77 of 79
suggested in reality prisons do little to do which two things?
deter others / rehabilitate offenders
78 of 79
what are two alternatives proposed which mean family contanct and maybe employment can be mntnd?
community service / restorative justice
79 of 79

Other cards in this set

Card 2


- aims



Card 3


custidial sentencing involves?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


what are the four main reasons for doing this?


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


1. deterrence


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all forensics resources »