forensics ; biological explanations ; geetic and neural explanations

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GENETIC EXPLANATIONS
DFGD
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what is the genetic explanation?
would-be offenders inherit a gene or combination that predisposes them to commit a crime
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- twin studies
sdfsd
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first criminal twin study conducted by?
lange
4 of 71
who investigated how many MZ twins?
13
5 of 71
and DZ?
17
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where one of twins in each pair had?
served time in prison
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found how many of 13 MZ twins had also been in prison?
10
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and how many of DZ?
2
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recent research by christiansen studied how many MZ?
87
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and DZ?
147
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and found concordance of what % MZ?
33%
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and DZ?
12%
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which supports what view?
offending may have genetic component
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- candidate genes
dfgd
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tiihonen et al genetically analysed almost how many offenders?
900
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revealed abnormalities on how many genes that may be associated with violent crime?
two
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which two genes?
MAOA / CDH13
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MAOA does wht?
ctrls dopamine / serotonin and linked to agressive hevaiour
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and CDH13 links to?
attention deficit disorder
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w/ finnish sample individuals with this high risk combination were how many times more likely to have risk of violetn behaviour?
13
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however must be emphasised this research is in infancy and has not so far been?
replicated
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- diathesis-stress model
dfgdfg
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if genetics do have some influence it seems likely this is @ least partly moderated by?
environment
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tendency toward criminal behaviour may come about through combination of?
genetic predisposition + bio/psych trigger
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NEURAL EXPLANATIONS
DFGD
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much of the evidence in this area has investigated individuals diagnosed with?
antisocial personality disorder
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APD is associated with what?
reduced emotional responses / lack empathy
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and this characterises many?
convicted criminals
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- prefrontal cortex
dgd
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raine has conducted many studies of APD brain reporting there are many brain-imaging studies demonstrating what?
APD individuals have reduced activity in prefrontal cortex
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this is the part of the brain that does what?
regulates emotional behaviour
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along with this raine and colleagues found what % reduction in volume of grey matter in prefrontal cortext of ppl w/ APD comp 2 ctrls?
11%
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- mirror neurons
dfgd
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recent research suggests what about apd and empathy?
can experience but more sporadically than rest of us
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keysers et al fd empathy reaction activated only when?
when criminals asked to empathise with person depicted on film w/ pain
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this suggests what about ppl w/ APD?
hav neural switch that can be turned on and off
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how is this unlike the normal brain?
switch is permanently on
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EVALUATION
DFGD
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:( twin studies
dgd
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early twin studies like lange's decided they were twins how?
appearance > dna testing
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as a result they may lack?
validity
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twin studies also involve what kind of sample sizes?
small
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and these are an unusual sample in themselves so may not?
reflect rest of population
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what is a major confounding variable?
twins are reared in same environment
45 of 71
so?
concordance rates may be due to shared learning experiences > genetics
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:) support for diathesis-stress model
sddf
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mednicj conducted major study of over how many danish adoptees?
13000
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researchers defined criminal behaviour as what?
being in posession of @ least one court conviction
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and this was checked againt what?
danish police records for each adoptee
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when neither biological nor adoptive parents had convictions % of adoptees that did was?
13.5%
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figure was what % when either biological parents had convictions?
20%
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and when both adoptive and biological parents had convictions?
24.5%
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data suggests waht?
tho geneic inheritance plays important role in offending, env influence can't be disregarded
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:( problems with adoption studies
dfdfgd
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presumed separation of genetic / env inf in adoption studies complicated how?
many children experience late adoption
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meaning?
much of infancy and childhood may have been spent with bio parents anyway
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similarly lots of adoptees do what following adoption?
mntn regular contact w. bio parents
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as well as this especially in mednick study figures quotes only apply to?
petty offences ad not voilent crime
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this means what for any conclusions draw?
may not apply to more serious crime
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EVAL EXTRA
DGD
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:( biological reductionism
dfgdf
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explanations that reduce criminality to genetic / neural level may be?
inappropriate + overly simplistic
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crime does appear to run in families but so do which other things?
emotional instability / mental illness / poverty
64 of 71
this makes it difficult do separare whtat?
effects of genes / neural inf and other factors
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also the case that while often difference in concordance rates between M/DZ twins neither do what?
show 100% concordance
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:( biological determinism
dgd
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why does notion of 'criminal gene' present dilemma?
current legal system based on premise criminals have personal and moral responsibility
68 of 71
only in extreme cases like mental illness can some claim what?
weren't acting under own free will
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this raises ethical questions about?
what society does to people suspected of criminal genes
70 of 71
ad what implications this may have for?
sentencing
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what is the genetic explanation?

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would-be offenders inherit a gene or combination that predisposes them to commit a crime

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- twin studies

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Card 4

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first criminal twin study conducted by?

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who investigated how many MZ twins?

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