Forensics

Crime
Refers to any behaviour that is unlawful and punishable by the state. It is an act that is harmful to an individual, group or society as a whole.
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Actus Reus
An act that constitutes a crime i.e the action (physical).
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Mens Rea
The intention to commit the act that constitutes a crime i.e was it deliberate (mental).
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Offender Profiling (Criminal Profiling)
A behaviourist and analytical tool that is intended to help investigators accurately predict and profile the characteristics of an unknown criminal.
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Modus Operandi
A distinct pattern or method of operation in this case when commiting a crime. Can indicate the involvement of a single criminal in more than one crime. Can help to identify the individual and predict their next move.
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Investigative Psychology
A form of bottom up profiling that matches details from the crime scene with statistical analysis of typical offender behaviour patterns based on psychological theory.
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Geographical Profiling
A form of bottom up profiling based on the principle of spatial consistency; that an offenders operation base and possible future offences are revealed by their geographical location of their previous crimes.
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Ativistic Form
A possible explanation for criminal offending, centring on the idea that offenders may represent a more primitive evolutionary stage of development than non-criminals. This may be shown in a range of facial and physical features.
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Criminal Personality
An individual that scores highly on measures of extraversion, neuroticism and psychotism and cannot be easily conditioned. They are cold and unfeeling and are likely to engage in offending behaviour.
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Level of Moral Reasoning
Refers to the process by which an individual draws upon their own value system to determine whether an action is right or wrong.
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Cognitive Distortions
Faulty, biased and irrational ways of thinking that mean we perceive ourselves, other people and the world inaccurately and usually negatively.
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Hostile Attribution Bias
The tendency to judge ambiguous situations, or actions of others as aggressive and/or threatening when in reality they may not be.
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Minimalisation (Minimisation)
A type of deception that involves downplaying the significance of an event or emotion. A common strategy when dealing with guilt.
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Differential Association Theory
Proposes that, through interactions with others, individuals learn their attitudes, values, techniques and motives of criminal behaviour,
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Custodial Sentence
Involves a convicted offender spending time in prison or another closed institution e.g. young offenders institute or psychiatric hospital.
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Deterrence
A method of stopping someone from doing something e.g. crime prevention.
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Rehabilitation
To change behaviour of an offender to a non-offender
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Recidivism
Reoffending, a tendency to relapse into a previous condition or mode of behaviour e.g. a convicted criminal who reoffends , usually repeatedly.
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Behaviour Modification
An application of the behaviourist approach to treatment e.g. management of offenders in penal system.
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Anger Management
A therapeutic programme that involves identifying the signs that trigger anger as well as learning techniques to calm down and deal with the situation in a positive way.
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Restoritive Justice Programme
A system for dealing with criminal behaviour which focuses on the rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Actus Reus

Back

An act that constitutes a crime i.e the action (physical).

Card 3

Front

Mens Rea

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

Offender Profiling (Criminal Profiling)

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Modus Operandi

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
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