Forensic Psychology Research Studies

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Alison et al. (2003) - Offender Profiling
Police officers had to evaluate the accuracy of psychological profiles in comparison with the facts given by the offender. Both groups felt happy with the profiles despite that they were different.
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Charles Goring (1913/1972) - Atavistic Form
Compared 3,000 English criminals with 3,000 non-criminals and found no significant difference in the physical features.
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William Sheldon (1949) - Somatotype Theory
200 college students and 200 male delinquents were rated according to their body types. Criminal delinquents had a mesomorphic body type (5.4). Students on average had the same body type.
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Johannes Lange (1929) - Genetic Transmission (Twins)
MZ twins showed a much higher degree of concordance than DZ twins for criminal behaviour.
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Christiansen (1977) - Genetic Transmission (Twins)
3,586 twin pairs were found to have concordance rates of 35% (MZ) and 13% (DZ) for males and 21% (MZ) and 8% (DZ) for females.
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Crowe (1972) - Genetic Transmission (Adoption)
Almost 50% of children in a sample of adopted children whose biological mothers had a criminal record, had a criminal record themselves by the age of 18. Children whose biological mothers didn't have a criminal record, only 5% committed a crime.
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Hutchings and Mednick (1975) - Genetic Transmission (Adoption)
Biological and adoptive fathers both criminals - 36.2% of sons also became criminals. Only biological - 21.4%. Only adoptive - 11.5%. Neither biological nor adoptive - 10.5%.
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Bowley (1946) - Psychodynamic Explanation of Offending
Investigated whether teengage thieves who displayed affectionless psychopathy were more likely to have experienced early maternal deprivation compared with those who did not. Found delinquency is linked to maternal deprivation in childhood.
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Farrington et al. (1982) - Eysenck's Theory of the Criminal Personality
In a study of prisoners, participants who tended to score high on psychoticism, did not on extroversion or neuroticism.
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Zimbardo (1971) - Custodial Sentencing
Supports situational attributions of behaviour. It was the prison situation itself that caused the participants behaviour, rather than their own, innate individual personalities.
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Hobbs and Holt (1976) - Behaviour Modification
Effects of the token economy programme on young offenders. Researchers found a significant increase in desirable behaviours compared with an institution that did not have a token economy programme. (Ayllon and Millan, 1979 - adult offenders)
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Rice et al. (1990) - Behaviour Modification
Failed to find any long term benefits of the token economy programme in a follow-up of offenders who had received this form of treatment. Desirable behaviours tended to disappear.
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Feindler et al. (1984) - Anger Management
In a group of young offenders, anger management programmes were effective in instilling problem solving and self-control as methods of reducing aggressive behaviour.
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Law (1997) - Anger Management
Found that only one individual who had completed an eight-session course showed any benefits compared with the rest of the group.
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Goldstein (1986) - Social Skills Training (SST)
Reviewed 30 studies of SST used with aggressive and delinquent teenagers and found that various skills such as negotiation with the probation officer had been learned.
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Card 2

Front

Compared 3,000 English criminals with 3,000 non-criminals and found no significant difference in the physical features.

Back

Charles Goring (1913/1972) - Atavistic Form

Card 3

Front

200 college students and 200 male delinquents were rated according to their body types. Criminal delinquents had a mesomorphic body type (5.4). Students on average had the same body type.

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

MZ twins showed a much higher degree of concordance than DZ twins for criminal behaviour.

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

3,586 twin pairs were found to have concordance rates of 35% (MZ) and 13% (DZ) for males and 21% (MZ) and 8% (DZ) for females.

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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