Forensic Psychologists

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Hastie et al (1983)
86% if not guilty, and 90% if guilty, the verdict given was the view of the majority prior the deliberation
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Smith and Mackie (1995)
majority influence is affective due to varied opinions, deeper discussions and greater confidence
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Stasser and Stewart (1992)
positive evaluation that comes about in deeper discussion makes participants focus on shared information and exclude private information
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Myers and Kaplan (1976)
group polarisation occurs in majority (risky shift)
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Nemeth (1977)
minority influence is effective as it makes people question themselves
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Moscovicci et al (1969)
minority influence affects long deliberations if there is consistency
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Pfeifer and Ogloff (1991)
black defendants were more likely to be convicted in **** charges
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Baldwin and McConville (1979)
black defendants were more likely to be wrongly convicted, not acquitted
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Gordon et al (1994)
black people were more likely to be convicted of burglary, white people more likely of fraud
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Saladin et al (1988)
halo affect - more attractive people are deemed less likely to be guilty, strongest in women
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Bartlett (1932)
active rebuilding when recalling information leads to inaccuracy
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Carmichael (1932)
verbal schemas affect recall
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Buckhout and Regan (1988)
cross race effect
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Ellis et al (1979)
we recall hair line and face shape, not whole faces making our facial recognition poor. 12.5% accuracy in Identikit photos
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Barjonet (1980)
driver error was attributed to the person in question, support for FAE
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Walster (1966)
in cases where personal damage occurred, internal attributions increase, AOE
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Loftus et al I1987)
the weapon effect
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Geiselman et al (1984)
the cognitive interview: reinstate the context, report everything, recall in different orders, change perspectives
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Kohnken et al (1999)
the cognitive interview increased recall of both correct and incorrect details, but did not affect the overall accuracy of the EWT
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Canter et al (2004)
there is no clear distinction between the organised and disorganised criminal, many can fall into both
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Santilla et al (2003)
there are consistent patterns in arsonists that UK profiling can find
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Copson (1995)
80% of police thought profiling was a useful contribution to cases
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Mokros and Alison (2002)
demographically similar rapists did not commit similar cimes - profiling is therefore inaffective
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Canter and Larkin (1993)
87% of rapists attack around there home making geographical profiling useful for catching the criminal
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Retz et al (20040
specific 5-HTTLPR gene is linked to violent behaviour
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Dabbs et al (1995)
higher testosterone levels are found in criminals, linked to violent behaviour
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Madson et al (2003)
mothers expectations of drinking were fulfilled by their children
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Eron and Huesmann (1986)
violence in the media, followed a group of children and found that TV violence and adult aggression were linked
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Charlton (2000)
found no increase in aggression after the introduction of TV, the prosocial norms of the area outweighed the violence
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Hollin et al (2004)
EST and R&R groups are less likely to reoffend
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Palmer et al (2008)
therapy doesnt work with low risk offenders as they do not have maladaptive thinking patterns
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Cann et al (2003)
CBT does not work for women as the courses are gender biased and they are typically low risk offenders
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Bassett and Blanchard (1977)
token economies require immediacy and consistency to comply with the known principles of learning, so good staff are needed to implement the treatment
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Garrido and Morales (2007)
juvenile offenders convicted of serious crimes reoffended less with the token economy than we not intervention, but CBT groups outperformed them
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Kelling and Wilson (1982)
broken window theory
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Pollard (1998)
zero tolerance is too hard and creates alienation within a community
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majority influence is affective due to varied opinions, deeper discussions and greater confidence

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Smith and Mackie (1995)

Card 3

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positive evaluation that comes about in deeper discussion makes participants focus on shared information and exclude private information

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Card 4

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group polarisation occurs in majority (risky shift)

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Card 5

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minority influence is effective as it makes people question themselves

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