forensic toxicology

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  • Created by: Sophie153
  • Created on: 24-03-16 13:15
what are uses of toxicology in court?
Clinical - investigation of poisoning in a supervised setting, usually a hospital. Environmental -the investigation of harmful effects of poisonous substances in the environment. Regulatory (animal)- meet requirements for licensing of commercial prod
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what is poison?
A substance that causes death or injury when swallowed or absorbed in to the body
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what are types of poison?
Corrosive substances e.g. acids •Irritants, e.g. heavy metals, lead, mercury, etc. •Systemic, act on biochemical processes, e.g. cyanide, carbon monoxide, drugs of abuse •Toxins, e.g. naturally occurring substances, e.g. snake venom, insect stings,
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what happens if you have too little of substances?
health problems arise e.g. need vitamins, medication...
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what factors affect does response curve?
• Carcinogenic or mutagenic substances • Age and size of individual • State of health • History of exposure • Paradoxical reactions • Genetics
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what are the routs of absorption?
orally, intravenously, inhalation, through mucous membranes
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what are routes of excretion?
through kidneys to urine, through liver to bile faeces, through the skin, exhaled by lungs
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reasons for fatal poisioning
•Suicidal •Accidental •Industrial •Iatrogenic (medical) •Homicidal
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what happens with samples?
The pathologist will take sample at autopsy. •Sample is delivered to toxicologist with instructions of which analysis to effect. •Specific substance, e.g. alcohol level •Partial unknown, e.g. available medication •Complete unknown
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what is analysis procedure?
Sample is pre-treated, e.g. blender, filtration •Extraction, e.g. with an organic solvent •Further purification •Instrumental analysis, HPLC, GC, etc.
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what is main ingredient in antifreeze?
ethandiol (NEED TO BE ABLE TO DRAW IT)
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what does antifreeze do?
kill nerve endings and get kidney malfunction, blind, deaf
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what does a toxicology report include?
•Dates and references •Instructing authority •Tests effected and the results obtained •Signatures and quality checks
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what isa professional witness in court?
presents the toxicological report and attests to the validity of the results.
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what is an expert witness?
give an opinion on the results
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how is ethanol produced?
is produced by anaerobic fermentation of sugars found in fruits and grains, by yeast organisms. The fermentation stops when the level of ethanol is too high for the yeast to tolerate.
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what are three types of alcoholic beverages?
produced by fermentation e.g. baileys, alcohol increased by distillation or a mixture (caped UK at 40%)
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how many ml of alcohol is equivalent in a unit
10ml
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how can analysis alcohol?
Percent volume/volume ratio (most common). •Percent volume/weight ratio. •Percent weight/weight ratio. •Percentage ‘proof’, where 100% proof is 57%v/v.
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what does alcohol do?
depressant, with anaesthetic-like properties. About 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in the stomach and about 80% is absorbed in the small intestine. It undergoes no chemical change, and diffuses in to the aqueous areas of the body and is distributed b
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what makes alcohol be absorbed more slowly?and faster?
food. bubbles like in gassy/fizzy drinks
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what else is it affected y?
lean body mass- fat doesn't absorb alcohol
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what is widmark equation?
a=cpr
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how does alcohol et eliminated?
depressant, with anaesthetic-like properties. About 20% of the alcohol is absorbed in the stomach and about 80% is absorbed in the small intestine. It undergoes no chemical change, and diffuses in to the aqueous areas of the body and is distributed b
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about metabolism of the liver?
Ethanol is coverted to ethanal (gives headaches and nausea) and then to ethanoic acid (acetic acid). Ethanoic acid is converted to carbon dioxide and water. Ethanoic acid is also converted to fatty acids
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Card 2

Front

what is poison?

Back

A substance that causes death or injury when swallowed or absorbed in to the body

Card 3

Front

what are types of poison?

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

what happens if you have too little of substances?

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

what factors affect does response curve?

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