Forensic Psychology-Turning to Crime

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Farrington: Aim?
To document and investigate the development of antisocial and criminal behaviour from age 10 to 50.
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Farrington: Sample?
411 boys from six state primary schools in South London. Mainly white working class.
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Farrington: Procedure?
Interviews were conducting with the boys from age 8 to 48. Participants were asked about their employment and living circumstances. Also checked criminal records.
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Farrington: Results?
40% of sample were convicted of a criminal offence before 40. 4% of 400 families were responsible for 50% of convictions. 6% of the sample were chronic offenders
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Farrington: Conclusions?
Mixture of biological and non-biological factors cause crime. Best to put in preventative measures at a young age.
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Sutherland: Any 2 of the 9 steps?
1) Criminal Behaviour is learnt. 2) The most important parts of criminal behaviour is learnt from intimate social groups not the media.
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Sutherland: Any 2 of the 9 steps?
3) When criminal behaviour is learnt the techniques used and motivations behind crimes are also learnt. 4) Differential Association varies in frequency and intensity based on exposure to criminal activity.
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Sutherland: Any 2 of the 9 steps?
5) If you're socialised to believe criminal behaviour is normal you're more likely to commit a crime. 6) Operational Conditioning- getting a reward from committing a crime makes you want to do it again.
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Wikstrom: Aim?
To identify individual and environmental factors that can encourage criminal behaviour.
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Wikstrom: Sample?
Cross Sectional sample of 2000 people in Peterborough who started Yr 7 in 2002.
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Wikstrom: Procedure?
Annual and biannual questionnaires conducted by the participants in groups. Focused on 3 main topics: the individual, environment and exposure to different environments.
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Wikstrom: Results?
Offenders often had weak morality and self control. Exposure to criminogenic environments lead to crime not living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood.
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Wikstrom: Conclusions?
Criminal Behaviour is caused by individual and environmental factors. Strong link between living in a disadvantaged neighbourhood and crime BUT poverty isn't the only factor.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Aim?
1) To understand the makeup of criminal personality. 2) To establish techniques that can be used to alter personality to reduce crime.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Sample?
225 males from different class and ethnic background. All found NGRI and put in a secure hospital.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Procedure?
Longitudinal Study over 14 years using interviews.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Results?
Offenders have cognitive processes that lead to distorted self image. Y&S describe a criminal personality characterised by 52 thinking errors.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Results- Identify the three thinking error groups?
1) Character Traits- feeling worthless, need for power & control. 2) Automatic thinking errors- poor decision making, lack of trust. 3) Crime related thinking errors- super optimism.
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Yochelson and Samenow: Conclusions?
Treatment of criminal behaviour involves trying to reverse or change criminal thinking patterns.
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Palmer and Hilling: Aim?
To compare moral reasoning between male delinquents and male/female non-delinquents.
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Palmer and Hilling: Sample?
126 convicted offenders in a Young Offenders Institution and 122 male/210 female non-offenders. Aged 13-22.
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Palmer and Hilling: Procedure?
All participants were given Socio-Moral Reflection Measure-Short Form (SRM-SF)- contained 11 moral dilemma related questions.
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Palmer and Hilling: Results?
Delinquents had less mature moral reasoning. Female non-delinquents had higher moral judgement than male non delinquents.
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Palmer and Hilling: Conclusions?
Suggests that interventions aimed at changing moral reasoning should focus on raising levels of moral reasoning.
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Byers et al.: Aim?
To investigate attribution bias in offenders who have committed hate crimes against the Amish.
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Byers et al.: Sample?
8 participants who had committed hate crimes against the Amish
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Byers et al.: Procedure?
Participants gave over 16 hours of in depth interviews describing the hate crimes.
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Byers et al.: Results?
Key attributes: 1) Denial of responsibility- 10.5% 2) Denial of injury- 31.5% 3) Denial of Victim-23.7% 4) Higher Loyalties- 18.4%
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Byers et al.: Conclusions
Offenders are more likely to make external attributions for violent behaviour.
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Raine: Aim?
To investigate patterns of brain activity in murderers and a sample of non murderers using PET scans.
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Raine: Sample-Experimental?
41 participants-39 men, 2 women- all charged with murder or manslaughter (pleaded NGRI but still convicted.)
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Raine: Sample-Control?
41 participants, matched on variables with a participant in the experimental group.
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Raine: Procedure?
Participants were injected with a tracker while they took part in performance tasks e.g. responding every time a O appeared on the screen. 30 mins after the injection a PET scan was done. Scans showed differences in glucose metabolism.
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Raine: Results?
Significant difference in activity levels in many areas of the brain between the experimental group and control.
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Raine: Conclusions?
Areas of the brain with abnormal activity were associated with lack of fear aggression etc.
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Brunner et al.: Aim?
A case study on a family in the Netherlands where all the men were affected by a syndrome of borderline mental retardation and abnormal violent behaviour.
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Brunner et al.: Sample?
5 males in the same family
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Brunner et al.: Procedure?
Analysed urine samples collected over a 24 hour period
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Brunner et al.: Result?
All had the faulty MAOA gene and the X chromosome of the gene responsible for the production of MAOA.
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Brunner et al.: Conclusions?
MAOA is involved in the production of serotonin metabolism. The participants brains were flooded with serotonin so the brain wasn't able to recognise it.
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Daly & Wilson: Aim?
To find out if homicide rates had any correlation to local life expectancy.
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Daly & Wilson: Procedure?
Collected survey date from police, school and local demographic records. Average life expectancies were compared to homicide rate in the area.
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Daly & Wilson: Results?
Homicide rates varied from 1.3 to 156 homicides/100,000 persons a year. Strong correlation between life expectancy and homicide rates.
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Daly & Wilson: Conclusions?
Young men from disadvantaged neighbourhoods were expected to live shorter lives- more likely to engage in risky behaviour.
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Farrington: Sample?


411 boys from six state primary schools in South London. Mainly white working class.

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Farrington: Procedure?


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Farrington: Results?


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Farrington: Conclusions?


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