Forensic Psychology- detecting deceit and false confessions

  • Created by: aarafa11
  • Created on: 11-04-20 17:40
what is the most prominent types of interviewing/interrogation
Reid techniques - Inbau & Reid (1967) manual
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what is the Reid technique
Assumption/tactics: suspects are thought to be guilty; Aim: to get them to confess
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what are the 2 stage process of the Reid technique
1)interview to (try to) determine if suspects are lying via analysis of non-verbal cues; and then 2) if decide the suspect is lying: nine-step interrogation – admission>truth search
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what does the 1st stage of the Reid process mean
behavioural analysis interview - to determine of the suspects are lying via (non) verbal ques
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what are the types of question asked in the 1st stage of the Reid process (behavioural analysis interview)
Purpose; history; knowledge; suspicions; vouch; credibility; opportunity; attitude; similar intentions; motive; Punishment; 2nd chance; objection; result; telling loves ones; bait
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what kind of questions would be asked in the 1st stage of the Reid process (behavioural analysis interview)
if you didnt commit an offence, who do you think did? shifting the guilt; who didnt do? purposefully took it? how to they feel about interview? similar intention? punishment for the guilty: (LIE) about evidence
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purpose of the ques in the 1st stage of the Reid process (behavioural analysis interview)
assumption: guilty person would not name someone else /innocent person; guilty will answer quickly & deny knowing who; guilty more evasive; guilty say not them; want exoneration; wont tell anyone; annoyed being interviewed
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what are the 2 types of approaches that are based on interviewee personality
Emotional – show remorse/anguish therefore provide sympathy, understanding; Non – appeal to their common sense/reasoning
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what is the reality of the personality approach in an interview
it is both emotional and reasoning
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what was the authors claim in the 9 step (2nd stage) of the Reid technique work
guilty suspect will react by changing his or her technique, whilst the innocent suspect will continue to deny.
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Reppucci, Meyer & Kostelnik (2010) - survey to see who in USA uses Reid technique
92% boy language for deception; 57% speech patters for deception; 46% suggest alternatives; 29% discourage denials; 27% confront with false evident of guilt
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can the UK use the Reid technique
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what is the problem with police using the reid techniques
vulanerable/ disability will agree to alternative suggestions and false guilt upon them
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is the reid techniques confessions valid
based on previous success ; contradicted by science/ delusions; could be getting false confessions; There’s no out for people who are innocent
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what are the criticism for the Reid technique
coercive; lead to false confession; inability to detect deception; trained observers less accurate (more confident) than non trained; no conclusive evidence to support; lack of empirical research
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what are the criticism for the Reid technique - validity with police
Detectives fail to exceed chance in detecting deception but have greater confidence; Police who endorsed Reid cues were worse than others distinguishing truth/lies; 68 police asked to rate if suspect was telling truth/lying-51% accuracy i.e. chance
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UK VS USA Reid technique- softly 1980
Bluff/hint/subtle other evidence forthcoming; Minimising suspects part in offence; Would be locked away for a long time; Help police = help self
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Miscarriages of justice - stephen downing 1973
convicted of murder of 22 yr old Wendy Sewell in Bakewell 1973; he was 17 with learning disability; interviewed for 8 hours police; made him sign confession. not eligible for parole; released 27 years later
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Miscarriages of justice - Guildford Four 1974 and the Birmingham Six 1975
bombing; coercive interviews
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how did the Miscarriages of justices using the reid techniques change policing
1984) regulates questioning of suspects (PACE); 1992) obtain info-develop into a standard framework for ethical interviewing (PEACE); 1994) inference may be drawn from failure to answer question
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what is Police and Criminal Evidence Act (PACE)
Interview is audio or video recorded
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principles of ethical interviews
Seeks truth rather than confession - no underlying assumption; Fairness and openness; Keep open mind - not guilty assumption
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what is the acronym for PEACE
P) planning & preparation; E) engaging & explain; A) account; C) challenge/close; E) evaluate
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what are the productive questions
OPEN (allow full range response, encourage long answer); PROBING (intrusive,specific answers); APPROPRIATE CLOSED (topic conclusion- open and probing exhausted)
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what are the types unproductive questions
inappropriate closed; leading; multiple; forced choice; opinion/statement
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what is a inappropriate closed question
same questions as an appropriate closed question but used in the wrong point in the interview
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what is a leading question
Suggest an answer (are you normally that aggressive after drinking)
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what is a multiple question
number of sub-questions asked at once
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what is a forced choice question
Offers the interviewee a limited number of possible responses
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what is a opinion/statement question
Poses an opinion rather than asking a specific questions (i think you did assault that person)
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what is the TED approach
Tell me what happened; Explain the events; Describe to me
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what type of questing uses the TED approach
open questions
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a bad example of a closed/unproductive question
you did murder her, yes (uncomfortable/ impolite)
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a good example of a closed/unproductive question
I) what did you do; S) murdered her; I) so you did, tell me about it
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a good example of a closed/unproductive question
summarising evidence against suspect
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what are the benifits of PEACE
initial free narrative and using evidence-based challenges; illustrate guilt regardless of whether the interviewee verbalises that guilt; truth to be revealed without manipulative & coercive tactics & reduce risk of false confessions
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what is Black's law definition of confession
Voluntary statement made by a person charged with the commission of a crime…wherein he acknowledges himself to be guilty of the offense charged and discloses the circumstances of the act or the share and participation which he had in it
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what is Black's law definition of admission
voluntary acknowledgement…of the existence of a fact or the truth of an allegation made
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what are the types of confession
true confession; false confession; true denials; false denials
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what are the prevalence of confession
Confession rate in England close to 60% over the past 25 years; Strength of evidence is pivotal; Geographic variance - Japan more than 90%; Methodologically difficult to determine which confessions true/false – i.e. what is ‘ground truth’
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why is it important to not falsely confess
innocent in prison; real perpetrator still in the community; reputation of police damaged
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what are the Prevalence of false confessions
can and do occur with troubling regularity, and continue to be a leading source of wrongful prosecution and erroneous conviction; 29% inmates have; Of 300 US convictions overturned by DNA, 30% FC contributing factor
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False confessions can be differentiated into (Kassin & wrightsman1985)
VOLUNTARY (know who did; mental illnes, cover up; admit to another crime); COMPLIANT (escape, avoid extra punishment); INTERNALISED (may believe they have done it but haven't)
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Why do people make false confessions? The factors
disposition (personality characteristic); situational (features of the interview)
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what are they types of dispositional factors
Personality, age, intelligence; Gudjonsson Compliance & Suggestibility Scales
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Gudjonsson Compliance & Suggestibility Scales
Used in courts worldwide; measure of individual differences & compliance; how likely are they to go with the investigation; eager to pleaseinvestigators
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how is dispotitional factors used in decision making when making false confession
rational choices;max well-being given the constraints they face (sensible, reason for shorter sentence); Increase anxiety if deny; Decrease anxiety if confess; Prefer outcomes which are immediate
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interrogation that uses situational factors which leads to false confession (kassin & McNall 1991)
MAX- exaggerating (strength of evidence, punishment/consequences); MIN-lulls false security (mitigates crime, makes excuses-blame victim)
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How does situational factors lead to false confession
interrogation (min/max); custody/isolation; coercion
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what are the types of coercion - situational factors
Length of interview; Resistance is futile; Pressure/stress- impairs judgement; Benefits of confession-mitigation, can escape; Sympathetic detective -limited time offer
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what is a lie (Vriji 2000)
A successful or unsuccessful deliberate attempt, without forewarning, to create in another a belief which the communicator considers to be untrue’
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How good are we at lie detection?
underestimate our own ability to lie, but overestimate our ability to detect lies; ability to detect deception by observing behaviour and listening to speech is limited; 54% of truths and lies being correctly classified
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How good are police at detecting lies?
Professionals no better-think they are; Those attending to changing posture cues/Reid may be worse; Better in high stake situations (murder/violence); more confident in property crime; May hold bias/stereotypes
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method of lie detection
Physiological responses (heart rate;sweat); non-verbal behaviour (facial expression, eye contact, body movement); speech(said and how)
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Physiological lie detection - Polygraph
Measure-bodily activity such as sweating, heart rate, bp, breathing; Control Question Technique (Relevant v control questions); Guilty Knowledge Test (Alternatives given, one of which perpetrator orients to); worldwide- investigation;
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do the UK use polygraph
no; UK 2014 assessment of high risk sex offenders; sex offender believe it works
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OJ Simpson control question technique (CQT) - polygraph
Have you ever played basketball? Did you murder Nicole? Have you ever shouted at Nicole?
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OJ Simpson guilty knowledge question technique (GKT) - polygraph
What was the cause of death of Nicole? Strangulation; Stabbing; Gunshot
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why use knowledge question technique and the control question technique on a polygraph
neutral question; relevent question; control question; to see if there's a difference in his reaction; baseline to compare
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what is the problems with polygraphs
Lack of theoretical foundation (CQT); Individual differences-plus may be stressed due to situation; High error rate; GKT can only be used when the suspect knows info and is refraining-may forget
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why is there high error rate when using polygraphs
guilty can take countermeasures (count 100 backwards; pain; training); tendency for false positives-classifying innocent as guilty
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how does Non-verbal behaviour (NVB) show lies
Gaze aversion-distracting to look at person; Fewer body movements due to cognitive load; Attempted control- inhibiting movements/stiff
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evidence against Non-verbal behaviour (NVB) showing lies
Some behaviours- e.g. fidgeting may be indicative of nervousness/anxiety/uncomfortable rather than lies; Some weakly related; Can be more tense when telling the truth; Need baseline
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Speech - Statement validity analysis (SVA)
Assesses veracity from verbal content using criteria-based content analysis (CBCA);
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What was originally the purpose of criteria-based content analysis (CBCA)
Originally to determine credibility of child witnesses in sexual offence trials
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what are the 4 stages of Speech - Statement validity analysis(SVA)
Analyse case file- what known, what is disputed; Interview to obtain statement (record, transcribe); CBCA assessing/evulaute quality of statement; Evaluation on validity checklist (e.g. if leading questions)
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evidence against Statement validity analysis(SVA)
Speech-related cues are more deceptive than non-verbal; 37 studies accuracy 73%; 103 cases Dutch child support agency CSA- weak relationship so maybe not ideal with young children; Tests not standardised, training inconsistent; not precise for forens
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evidence for Statement validity analysis(SVA)
Many believe (NVC can detect deception); Reliable cues to deception are scarce/show weak predictive value; Establishing ground truth difficult; Lack of theory, limited real life research ( lab-stakes are much lower); Beyond reasonable doubt?
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what is a cognitive lie detection
Impose cognitive load – make mentally more difficult; Encourage to say more – more leads, harder; Asking unexpected questions – liars plan
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how mights drawing (dis)prove a lie
secret agents didn’t draw person as stuck to location knew (truth 80%, lie 13%) and liars drew from overhead position
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what is a model statement
Give example of how much info to provide; Truth more spontaneous complications; Truth adds more core details (liars peripheral to compensate)
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what are the 2 stage process of the Reid technique


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what does the 1st stage of the Reid process mean


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what are the types of question asked in the 1st stage of the Reid process (behavioural analysis interview)


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