Forensic Psychology

Crime
An act committed in violation of the law - consequence of conviction by court is punishment
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Offender Survey
Self-report measure that requires people to record the number and types of crimes they have committed over specific time period
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Victim Survey
Questionnaire that asks a sample of people to decribe what crimes have been committed against them over specific time period and whether or not it was reported
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Official statistics
Figures based on the numbers of crimes reported/recorded by police - often used by government to inform crime prevention strategies
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Offender profiling
Behavioural and analytical tool investigators use to accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminal
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Top-down approach
Profilers start with pre-established typology and work down in order to assign offenders to 1 of 2 categories - based on evidence/EWT
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Organised offender
Offender shows evidence of planning/targeting victim - socially & sexually competent/higher that average IQ
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Disorganised offender
Offender shows little evidence of planning and leaves clues - socially & sexually incompetent/ lower than average IQ
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Bottom-up approach
Profilers work up from evidence collected to develop hypothesis about the likely characteristics/background of criminal
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Investigative psychology
Form of bottom-up profiling- matches details from crime scene to statistical analysis of typical offender behaviour patterns
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Geographical profiling
Form of bottom-up profiling - Based on spatial consistency - offenders base/future offences are revealed by geographical locations of previous crimes
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Atavistic form
Biological approach to offending - offenders are genetic throwbacks/primitive subspecies that cant conform to modern society - distinguishable by physical characteristics
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The criminal personality
An individual that scores highly on measures of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism = cannot be conditioned easily/cold and unfeeling/likely to engage in offending behaviour
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Level of moral reasoning
the process by which individuals draws upon their own value system to determine whether an action is right or wrong = Kohlberg attempted to objectify this
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Cognitive distortions
Faulty/biased/irrational ways of thinking that mean we perceive ourself,others and the world inaccurately - usually negative
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Hostile attribution bias
Tendency to judge ambiguous situations, actions of others, as aggressive and/or threatening when in reality they may not be
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Minimalisation
Type of deception that involves downplaying the significance of an event or emotion - common strategy when dealing with feelings of guilt
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Differential association theory
Explanation for offending - individuals learn values/attitudes/techniques/motives for criminal behaviour through interaction with others
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Custodial sentencing
Judicial sentencing determined by a court - offender is punished by serving time in prison/closed therpeutic/educational institution
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Recidivism
Reoffending - tendency to relapse to previous mode of behaviour
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Behaviour modification
Application of biological approach - based on operant conditioning = replace undesirable behaviours through the use of positive and negative reinforcement
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Anger management
Therapeutic programme - involves identifying signs that trigger anger and learning techniques to calm down and deal with the situation in a positive way - aim to manage anger, not prevent
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Restorative justice
System for dealing with criminal behaviour - focuses on rehabilitation of offenders through reconciliation with victims - see the impact of the crime & empowers the victim
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Self-report measure that requires people to record the number and types of crimes they have committed over specific time period

Back

Offender Survey

Card 3

Front

Questionnaire that asks a sample of people to decribe what crimes have been committed against them over specific time period and whether or not it was reported

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

Figures based on the numbers of crimes reported/recorded by police - often used by government to inform crime prevention strategies

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

Behavioural and analytical tool investigators use to accurately predict and profile the characteristics of unknown criminal

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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