Forensic biology - Structure and function of nucleic acids

  • Created by: aarafa11
  • Created on: 28-05-20 21:50
What is the monomer of DNA and RNA
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What makes up nucleotide
phosphate, sugar (carbohydrate); base
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What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose
deoxyribose is the same as ribose but minus 1 Oxygen atom on carbon 2
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Which base is purine
Adenine; Guanine
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Which base is pyrimidine
cytosine; thymine; uracil
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which base does uracil replace in RNA
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where does the Phosphodiester bonds form in DNA and RNA
3′-OH group of the sugar moiety of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another nucleotide
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how does an RNA work in viruses
And double stranded RNA (dsRNA)
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how does an DNA work in viruses
Can have single stranded DNA (ssDNA)
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How many hydrogen between Adenine and thymine in DNA
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How many hydrogen between cytosine and Guanine in DNA
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Functions of DNA
Ability to replicate accurately; Contains instructions for assembling proteins; Capable of alterations through mutations
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Semi-Conservative Replication
DNA helicase breaks the H-bond between bases at the origins of replication; each strands becomes a template; free nucleoside triphosphates (dNTP) will bind to complimentary base and join by h-bond using DNA polymerase (3')
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Wihat happens when DNA polymerase joins the free nucleoside triphosphates (dNTP
hydrolysis will form phosphodiester bond between nucleotides; Pyrophosphate is released
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Semi discontinuous Replication
replicated in fragments (Okazaki fragments); joined to the previously synthesised part of the DNA stand by DNA ligase
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how does DNA make protein
transcription (synthesis of mRNA); Translation (mRNA uses ribosome in the cytoplasm)
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how many nucleotide does it take to make a codon
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DNA helicase breaks the H-bond; RNA polymerase ‘builds’ mRNA from the DNA ‘template’, using free nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs)
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what would the tRNA anti-codon be of the mRNA UGG
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Where to find tRNA
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mRNA leaves the nucleus by the nucleus pore; attaches to a ribosome; tRNA anticodon binds to its specific codon which also carries an AA; ribosome moves along mRNA & bring 2 tRNA that pairs to a codon to form AA; the AA joins by peptide bonds (ATP)
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how many genes form a protein
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


What makes up nucleotide


phosphate, sugar (carbohydrate); base

Card 3


What is the difference between ribose and deoxyribose


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Which base is purine


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Which base is pyrimidine


Preview of the front of card 5
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